On the Representation and Estimation of Spatial Uncertainty

@article{Smith1986OnTR,
  title={On the Representation and Estimation of Spatial Uncertainty},
  author={Randall C. Smith and Peter C. Cheeseman},
  journal={The International Journal of Robotics Research},
  year={1986},
  volume={5},
  pages={56 - 68}
}
This paper describes a general method for estimating the nominal relationship and expected error (covariance) between coordinate frames representing the relative locations of ob jects. The frames may be known only indirectly through a series of spatial relationships, each with its associated error, arising from diverse causes, including positioning errors, measurement errors, or tolerances in part dimensions. This estimation method can be used to answer such questions as whether a camera… 

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