On the Psychology of Watching Birds: The Problem of Observer-Expectancy Bias

@article{Balph1983OnTP,
  title={On the Psychology of Watching Birds: The Problem of Observer-Expectancy Bias},
  author={David F. Balph and Martha Hatch Balph},
  journal={The Auk},
  year={1983},
  volume={100},
  pages={755-757}
}
seen it if I hadn't believed it" (Foster et al. 1975). The influence upon data of an observer's preconceived notions or wishes has been recognized and investigated at least since the beginning of this century. Much of the research has been in educational and social psychology and has focused upon the psychological environment in which experiments are conducted. Typical of such investigations is Cordaro and Ison's (1963) study of observers who documented the activity of planaria. Some observers… 
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