On the Progenitor of Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817

@article{Collaboration2017OnTP,
  title={On the Progenitor of Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817},
  author={The Ligo Scientific Collaboration and T. M. C. Abbott and Richard J. Abbott and Thomas Abbott and Fausto Acernese and Kendall Ackley and Carl Adams and Todd Adams and Paolo Addesso and Rana X. Adhikari and V B Adya and Christoph Affeldt and Mohammad Afrough and Bhanu Agarwal and Michalis Agathos and Kazuhiro Agatsuma and Nancy Aggarwal and Odylio D. Aguiar and Lloyd Paul Aiello and Anirban Ain and Parameswaran Ajith and Bruce Allen and Gabrielle Allen and Annalisa Allocca and Paul A Altin and A. Amato and Alena Ananyeva and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and S. V. Angelova and Sarah Antier and Stephen Appert and Koji Arai and M. C. Araya and Joseph Areeda and Nicolas Arnaud and K. G. Arun and Stefano Ascenzi and Gregory Ashton and Melanie Ast and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and D. V. Atallah and Peter Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and K. AultONeal and Christopher C. Austin and Adriana {\'A}vila-{\'A}lvarez and Stanislav Babak and Philippe Bacon and M. K. M. Bader and S Bae and Paul T. Baker and F. Baldaccini and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and Sharan Banagiri and J. C. B. Barayoga and S. E. Barclay and Barry C. Barish and Daniel H. N. Barker and Kevin Barkett and Fabrizio Barone and B. W. Barr and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and D{\'a}niel Barta and Jms Bartlett and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and Andrea Basti and J. C. Batch and Mateusz Bawaj and Joseph Bayley and Marco Bazzan and Bence B'ecsy and C. Beer and Michał Bejger and I. Belahcene and A. S. Bell and B. K. Berger and Gerald Bergmann and John J Bero and Christopher P. L. Berry and Diego Bersanetti and Alessandro Bertolini and J Betzwieser and Swetha Bhagwat and R. Bhandare and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and Chris Billman and Jeremy Birch and R Birney and Ofek Birnholtz and Sebastien Biscans and Sylvia Biscoveanu and A. Bisht and Massimiliano Bitossi and Christopher Michael Biwer and M. A. Bizouard and J. K. Blackburn and Jonathan Blackman and Carl Blair and David G Blair and R. M. Blair and Steven Bloemen and Oliver Bock and Nina Bode and Michel Boer and Gilles Bogaert and Alejandro Boh{\'e} and F. Bondu and Edgard Bonilla and Romain Bonnand and Boris A. Boom and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Suvadeep Bose and K. Bossie and Yann Bouffanais and Aaron T. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Patrick R. Brady and Marica Branchesi and James E. Brau and Tristan Briant and A. Brillet and Martin Brinkmann and V. Brisson and Patrick Brockill and J. E. Broida and A. F. Brooks and D D Brown and Sharon Brunett and C. C. Buchanan and Aaron Buikema and Tomasz Bulik and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and D. Buskulic and Christelle Buy and Robert L. Byer and Miriam Cabero and Laura Cadonati and Gianpietro Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Juan Calder{\'o}n Bustillo and Thomas A. Callister and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and Maurizio Canepa and Priscilla Canizares and Kipp Cannon and H. Cao and J. Cao and C. D. Capano and E. Capocasa and Franco Carbognani and Santiago Caride and Matthew Carney and J. Casanueva Diaz and Claudio Casentini and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Carlos Cepeda and Pablo Cerd'a-Dur'an and G. Cerretani and Elisa Cesarini and Sydney JoAnne Chamberlin and Man Leong Chan and S. Chao and P R Charlton and Eve A. Chase and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and Deep Chatterjee and Belinda D. Cheeseboro and H. Y. Chen and X. Chen and Y. R. Chen and H.-P. Cheng and Hanyu Chia and Andrea Chincarini and Antonino Chiummo and T. Chmiel and H. S. Cho and M. Cho and Jong H. Chow and Nelson Christensen and Qi Chu and Alvin J. K. Chua and Sheon S Y Chua and Adrian Ka-Wai Chung and S. Chung and Giacomo Ciani and Riccardo Ciolfi and Caterina Cirelli and A Cirone and Filiberto Clara and J A Clark and Patrick Clearwater and F. Cleva and Candida Gori Cocchieri and Eugenio Coccia and P.-F. Cohadon and David Cohen and Alberto Colla and Christophe Collette and Lynn R. Cominsky and Marcio Constancio and L Conti and S J Cooper and P. Corban and Thomas R. Corbitt and Isabel Cordero-Carri'on and K. Rainer Corley and Alessandra Corsi and Samuele Cortese and C. A. Costa and Michael W. Coughlin and S Coughlin and J.-P. Coulon and Stefanie Countryman and Peter Couvares and P. B. Covas and Edith Cowan and D. M. Coward and M. J. Cowart and D. C. Coyne and Robert Coyne and Jolien D. E. Creighton and T. D. Creighton and Jonathan Cripe and S. Gwynne Crowder and Torrey Cullen and Andrew Cumming and L. Cunningham and Elena Cuoco and Tito Dal Canton and Gergely D'alya and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and Abhigyan Dasgupta and Carlos F. Da Silva Costa and Vincenzino Dattilo and Itishri Dave and M. Davier and Derek Davis and E J Daw and B. Day and Soumi De and Daniel B. DeBra and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Martina de Laurentis and Samuel Del'eglise and Walter del Pozzo and Nicholas Demos and Thomas Denker and Thomas Dent and Roberto De Pietri and Vladimir Dergachev and Rosario De Rosa and R. T. Derosa and Camilla de Rossi and Riccardo DeSalvo and Omar de Varona and Jan Devenson and Sanjeev V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D'iaz and L. Di Fiore and Matteo di Giovanni and Tristano Di Girolamo and Alberto Di Lieto and Sibilla Di Pace and I. Di Palma and Francesco Di Renzo and Zoheyr Doctor and Vincent Dolique and Frederick J. Donovan and K L Dooley and Suresh Doravari and Iain Dorrington and Rebecca Douglas and Miguel Dovale {\'A}lvarez and Turlough P. Downes and M. Drago and Christoph Dreissigacker and J C Driggers and Zhihui Du and M. Ducrot and Peter Dupej and Sheila E. Dwyer and Tega Boro Edo and Matthew C. Edwards and Anamaria Effler and H. B. Eggenstein and Phil Ehrens and Jan Eichholz and Stephen S. Eikenberry and Robert A. Eisenstein and Reed Essick and D Estevez and Zachariah B. Etienne and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Thomas M. Evans and Maxim Factourovich and V Fafone and H. Fair and Stephen Fairhurst and X. Fan and Stefania Farinon and Benjamin Farr and Will M. Farr and E Fauchon-Jones and Marc Favata and Maxime Fays and Christopher Fee and H. Fehrmann and Jon R. Feicht and Martin M. Fejer and {\'A}lvaro Fern{\'a}ndez-Galiana and I. Ferrante and E.C. Ferreira and Federico Ferrini and Francesco Fidecaro and Daniel Finstad and Irene Fiori and Donatella Fiorucci and Maya Fishbach and Rebecca Fisher and M. Fitz-Axen and R. Flaminio and Mark Fletcher and Heather Fong and Jos{\'e} A. Font and P W F Forsyth and Sophie Forsyth and J.-D. Fournier and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and Volker Frey and Erin Murphy Fries and P. Fritschel and Valery Victor Frolov and P. J. Fulda and Matthew Fyffe and Hunter Gabbard and Bhooshan Gadre and Sebastian M. Gaebel and Jonathan R. Gair and Luca Gammaitoni and Miftar Ganija and Sampada Gaonkar and Cecilio Garc{\'i}a-Quir{\'o}s and F. Garufi and Bubba Gateley and Sergio Del Gaudio and G. Gaur and V. Gayathri and N. C. Gehrels and Gianluca Gemme and Emmanuelle G{\'e}nin and A. Gennai and Daniel George and Julia George and L'aszl'o 'A. Gergely and Vincent Germain and Sudarshan Ghonge and Abhirup Ghosh and Archisman Ghosh and S. Ghosh and J. A. Giaime and Krystal Giardina and A. Giazotto and Karl Gill and Lamar Glover and Evan Goetz and Ryan P. Goetz and S. Gomes and Boris Goncharov and J. M. Gonzalez Castro and A. Gopakumar and Michael L. Gorodetsky and Sarah E. Gossan and Matthieu Gosselin and R. Gouaty and Aniello Grado and Christian Graef and Massimo Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and C. Gray and Giuseppe Greco and Andrew Green and Elizabeth M. Gretarsson and Paul J. Groot and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and P. Gruning and G. Guidi and X. Guo and A. Gupta and M. Gupta and Kaitlin E. Gushwa and Eric K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and O Halim and Bernard Hall and Evan D. Hall and E. Z. Hamilton and Giles D. Hammond and Maria Haney and M. M. Hanke and Jonathan Hanks and Chad Hanna and Mark Hannam and Otto A. Hannuksela and James E. Hanson and T Hardwick and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and M. J. Hart and Carl-Johan Haster and K. Haughian and James Healy and Antoine Heidmann and Matthew Heintze and H. Heitmann and P. Hello and Gary Hemming and Martin Hendry and Ik Siong Heng and John Hennig and Alastair Heptonstall and Mich{\`e}le Heurs and Stefan Hild and Tanja Hinderer and David C. Hoak and David Jonathan Hofman and A. Miguel Holgado and K. Holt and Daniel E. Holz and Philip F. Hopkins and C. Horst and James Hough and E. Alasdair Houston and E J Howell and Ali Hreibi and Y. M. Hu and Eliu A. Huerta and Dominique Huet and Barbara J. Hughey and Sascha Husa and S. H. Huttner and T. Huynh--Dinh and Nathaniel M. Indik and Ra Inta and Giuseppe Intini and Hafizah Noor Isa and J. M. Isac and Maximiliano Isi and Bala R. Iyer and Kiwamu Izumi and T. Jacqmin and Karan Jani and Piotr Jaranowski and S. Jawahar and F. Jim'enez-Forteza and W. W. Johnson and D. I. Jones and R. Jones and R. J. G. Jonker and Li Ju and Jonas Junker and Chinmay Kalaghatgi and Vassiliki Kalogera and Brittany Kamai and S Kandhasamy and G. Kang and Jonah Kanner and Shasvath J. Kapadia and Sudarshan Karki and Kai S. Karvinen and Marie Kasprzack and M. Katolik and Erik Katsavounidis and William G. Katzman and Steffen Kaufer and Keita Kawabe and Fabien K'ef'elian and David Keitel and Athol J. Kemball and Ross Kennedy and C. Kent and Joey Shapiro Key and Farid Ya. Khalili and I Khan and S. A. Khan and Z. A. Khan and E. A. Khazanov and N Kijbunchoo and Chunglee Kim and J. C. Kim and K. Kim and W. S. Kim and W. S. Kim and Y.-M. Kim and C. Kimball and Seth J. Kimbrell and Eleanor J King and P. J. King and Maya M. 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Lockerbie and L London and Janet E. Lord and Marco Lorenzini and Vincent Loriette and Marc Lormand and Giovanni Losurdo and James Lough and Carlos O. Lousto and Geoffrey Lovelace and Harald Luck and Diana Lumaca and Andrew Lundgren and R. Lynch and Y. Ma and Ronaldas Macas and S. Macfoy and B. Machenschalk and Myron Macinnis and D Macleod and Ignacio Maga{\~n}a Hernandez and Fabian Maga{\~n}a-Sandoval and Lorena Maga{\~n}a Zertuche and Ryan Magee and E. Majorana and I. Maksimovic and Na Man and Vuk Mandic and Vanessa Mangano and Georgia L. Mansell and Magnus Manske and Maddalena Mantovani and Fabio Marchesoni and F. Marion and Szabolcs M'arka and Zsuzsa M'arka and Charalampos Markakis and Ashot Markosyan and Alex G. Markowitz and Edward Maros and Antonio Marquina and F. Martelli and Lionel Martellini and Iain W. Martin and R. M. Martin and Denis Martynov and K. O. Mason and E. Massera and A. Masserot and Thomas Massinger and M. 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Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Donald A Moffa and Andrea Moggi and Kentaro Mogushi and M. Mohan and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and M. Montani and Christopher J. Moore and Daniel Moraru and Gerardo Moreno and S. R. Morriss and B. Mours and Conor M Mow-Lowry and Guido Mueller and Alistair William Muir and Arunava Mukherjee and Dipanjan Mukherjee and Subroto Mukherjee and Nikhil Mukund and Adam J Mullavey and Jesper Munch and E. A. M. Muniz and Martina Muratore and P. G. Murray and Kevin J. Napier and Ilaria Nardecchia and L. Naticchioni and Rabindranath Nayak and Joshua Neilson and Gijs Nelemans and T. J. N. Nelson and Marcello Nery and Ansel Neunzert and Lucy Nevin and Jeffrey Newport and G. P. Newton and K. K. Y. Ng and T. T. Nguyen and David A. Nichols and Alex B. Nielsen and Samaya M. Nissanke and Alexander H. Nitz and Andreas Noack and F. Nocera and Dan Nolting and Christopher E. North and Laura K Nuttall and Jason Oberling and G. D. O’Dea and G. H. Ogin and J J Oh and S. H. Oh and Frank Ohme and M. A. Okada and Miquel Oliver and Patrick Oppermann and Richard J. Oram and Brian O'reilly and R. G. Ormiston and Luis F. Ortega and Richard O’Shaughnessy and Serguei Ossokine and David J. Ottaway and Harry Overmier and Benjamin J. Owen and Alexander Pace and Jessica Page and Michael A. Page and Archana Pai and Sanjay A. Pai and Jordan Palamos and O. V. Palashov and Cristiano Palomba and A. Pal-Singh and H. I. Pan and Huang Wei Pan and Belinda Heyun Pang and Peter T. H. Pang and Chris Pankow and Francesco Pannarale and Bhasker Pant and Federico Paoletti and Angela Delli Paoli and Maria Alessandra Papa and Abhishek Parida and William Parker and Daniela Pascucci and A. Pasqualetti and R. Passaquieti and D. Passuello and Mandar Patil and Barbara Patricelli and Brynley Pearlstone and M. Pedraza and Richard Pedurand and Larne Pekowsky and Arnaud Pele and Stephen Penn and Carlos J. Perez and Antonio Perreca and L. M. Perri and Harald P. Pfeiffer and M. Phelps and Ornella Juliana Piccinni and Mikhael Pichot and Francesco Piergiovanni and Vincenzo Pierro and Gabriel Pillant and L. Pinard and Innocenzo M. Pinto and Marc Pirello and Matthew Pitkin and Mark Poe and R. Poggiani and P. Popolizio and Edward K. Porter and A. Post and Jade Powell and Jayanti Prasad and Jacob W. Pratt and Geraint Pratten and Valeriu Predoi and Tanner Prestegard and M. Prijatelj and M. Principe and Stephen Privitera and Giovanni Andrea Prodi and L G Prokhorov and Oliver Puncken and M. Punturo and P. Puppo and Michael Purrer and H. Qi and Volker Quetschke and Eric Antonio Quintero and Ryan Quitzow-James and D. S. Rabeling and Hugh Radkins and P{\'e}ter Raffai and Sendhil Raja and C. Rajan and B. Rajbhandari and Malik Rakhmanov and K. E. Ramirez and Antoni Ramos-Buades and P. Rapagnani and V Raymond and Massimiliano Razzano and Jocelyn Read and Tania Regimbau and Luca Rei and Stuart Reid and David Reitze and Wei Ren and Steven Reyes and F. Ricci and Paul M. Ricker and Stefanie Rieger and Keith Riles and M Rizzo and N. A. Robertson and Raymond Robie and Florent Robinet and Alessandro Rocchi and Lo{\"i}c Rolland and Jameson Graef Rollins and Vincent Roma and Rocco Romano and Chandra Romel and J. H. Romie and D. Rosi'nska and Michael P Ross and Sheila Rowan and A. Rudiger and P. Ruggi and G. Rutins and Kris Ryan and Surabhi Sachdev and Travis Sadecki and Laleh Sadeghian and Mairi Sakellariadou and Livio Salconi and M. Saleem and Francesco Salemi and Anuradha Samajdar and Letizia Sammut and Laura Sampson and E. J. Sanchez and L. E. Sanchez and Nicolas Sanchis-Gual and V. D. Sandberg and Joyce Sanders and Beno{\^i}t Sassolas and Bangalore Sathyaprakash and O. E. S. Sauter and Richard L. Savage and A. Sawadsky and Paul Schale and Mark A. Scheel and Jacob Scheuer and J. Schmidt and Patricia Schmidt and Roman Schnabel and Robert M. S. Schofield and A. Schonbeck and Emil Schreiber and Daniel R. Schuette and Brian Wm. Schulte and Bernard F. Schutz and Sophia Schwalbe and J. Scott and Susan M. Scott and Edward Seidel and Danny Sellers and Anand S. Sengupta and Daniel Sentenac and Valeria Sequino and A. M. Sergeev and Daniel A. Shaddock and Thomas Shaffer and A. A. Shah and M. Selim Shahriar and Morgan Shaner and Lijing Shao and B. Shapiro and Peter Shawhan and A C Sheperd and D. H. Shoemaker and Deirdre M. Shoemaker and Karelle Siellez and Xavier Siemens and Magdalena Sieniawska and Daniel Sigg and A. da Silva and Leo P. Singer and A. Singh and Akshat Singhal and Alicia M. Sintes and Bram J. J. Slagmolen and B. Smith and J. R. Smith and R Smith and Surendra Nadh Somala and E J Son and Jackie Sonnenberg and Borja Sorazu and Fiodor Sorrentino and Tarun Souradeep and A P Spencer and A. K. Srivastava and Kai Staats and Alexa Staley and Michael Steinke and Jessica Steinlechner and S. Steinlechner and Daniel Steinmeyer and Simon Stevenson and Robert Stone and D. J. Stops and Kenneth Strain and Giulia Stratta and Sergey Strigin and Amber Strunk and Riccardo Sturani and Al. Stuver and Tiffany Summerscales and L. Sun and Sooraj Sunil and Joshua Suresh and P. Sutton and Bas Swinkels and Marek J. Szczepa'nczyk and Matteo Tacca and Simon C. Tait and Colm Talbot and Dipongkar Talukder and David B. Tanner and M'arton T'apai and Andrea Taracchini and Jay D. Tasson and J Alex Taylor and R. D. Taylor and Sumanta Tewari and Thomas Theeg and Fabian Thies and E. G. Thomas and M. Thomas and Pieter Thomas and Keith A. Thorne and Eric Thrane and Srishti Tiwari and Vaibhav Tiwari and K. Tokmakov and Karl Toland and Mauro Tonelli and Zeno Tornasi and Alejandro Torres-Forn'e and C. I. Torrie and Daniel Toyra and Flavio Travasso and Gary Traylor and Jonathan P. Trinastic and Maria Concetta Tringali and Lucia Trozzo and Ka Wa Tsang and M. Tse and Robert Tso and Leo Tsukada and Daichi Tsuna and Darkhan Tuyenbayev and Koh Ueno and Dennis Wayne Ugolini and C. S. Unnikrishnan and Alexander L. Urban and S. A. Usman and Henning Vahlbruch and Gabriele Vajente and Guillermo Valdes and Niels Anton van Bakel and Martinus van Beuzekom and J. F. J. van den Brand and Chris van den Broeck and Daniel Vander-Hyde and Laura van der Schaaf and Joris van Heijningen and A. A. van Veggel and M Vardaro and Vijay Varma and Steve Vass and M'aty'as Vas'uth and Alberto Vecchio and Gabriele Vedovato and John Veitch and Peter J. Veitch and Krishna Venkateswara and Gautam Venugopalan and D. Verkindt and F. Vetrano and Andrea Vicer'e and Aaron Viets and Serena Vinciguerra and David Vine and J.-Y. Vinet and Salvatore Vitale and Thomas Vo and Helios Vocca and Cheryl Vorvick and Sergey P. Vyatchanin and Andrew R. Wade and Leslie Wade and Madeline Wade and R. C. Walet and Marissa Walker and L. Wallace and Sin'ead Walsh and G. Wang and H. Wang and J. Z. Wang and W. H. Wang and Y. Wang and Robert L. Ward and Jimmy Warner and Michal Was and Jennifer Watchi and Betsy Weaver and L.-W. Wei and Michael Weinert and Alan J. Weinstein and Rainer Weiss and Longping Wen and Erik Wessel and Peter Wessels and Julian Westerweck and Tobias Westphal and Karl Wette and James Whelan and Bernard F Whiting and Chris Whittle and Dennis Wilken and D. Williams and R. D. Williams and Andrew R. Williamson and Josh Willis and Benno Willke and M. H. Wimmer and Walter Winkler and Christopher C. Wipf and Holger Wittel and Graham Woan and J. Woehler and J. K. Wofford and K. W. K. Wong and John R. Worden and J. Lenore Wright and D. S. Wu and Daniel Wysocki and S. Xiao and H. Yamamoto and Cregg C. Yancey and L. Yang and Ming Yap and Maher Yazback and Hang Yu and Haocun Yu and M. Yvert and A. K. Zadro.zny and Michele Zanolin and T. I. Zelenova and Jean Pierre Zendri and Michael Zevin and L. Zhang and M. Zhang and T. X. Zhang and Y-h Zhang and C Zhao and M. Zhou and Z. Zhou and S. J. Zhu and X J Zhu and Michael Edward Zucker and J. G. Zweizig},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2017},
  volume={850},
  pages={1-18}
}
On 2017 August 17 the merger of two compact objects with masses consistent with two neutron stars was discovered through gravitational-wave (GW170817), gamma-ray (GRB 170817A), and optical (SSS17a/AT 2017gfo) observations. The optical source was associated with the early-type galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of just ~40 Mpc, consistent with the gravitational-wave measurement, and the merger was localized to be at a projected distance of ~2 kpc away from the galaxy's center. We use this minimal set… 

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