On the Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics

  title={On the Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics},
  author={John Stewart Bell},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
  • J. Bell
  • Published 1 July 1966
  • Physics
  • Reviews of Modern Physics
The demonstrations of von Neumann and others, that quantum mechanics does not permit a hidden variable interpretation, are reconsidered. It is shown that their essential axioms are unreasonable. It is urged that in further examination of this problem an interesting axiom would be that mutually distant systems are independent of one another. 

The significance of a hidden variable proof and the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics

This paper examines the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics. Since this interpretation is based on a proof by Kochen and Specker that purports to demonstrate that hidden variable theories for

Axiomatic foundations of quantum mechanics revisited: The case for systems

We present an axiomatization of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics for a system with an arbitrary number of components. The interpretation of our system of axioms is realistic and objective. The EPR

Are Hidden Variables Possible

The impossibility proof given by von Neumann for hidden variables to complete quantum mechanics is a direct consequence of the density-matrix formalism; since this stands or falls with quantum theory

History of Quantum Mechanics or the Comedy of Errors

The goal of this paper is to explain how the views of Albert Einstein, John Bell and others, about nonlocality and the conceptual issues raised by quantum mechanics, have been rather systematically

Comments on “There Is No Axiomatic System for the Quantum Theory”

In a recent paper, Nagata (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 48(12):3532, 2009) claims to derive inconsistencies from quantum mechanics. In this paper, we show that the inconsistencies do not come from quantum

A hidden-variables versus quantum mechanics experiment

In the light of the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem, we examine a feasible experimental test in order to discriminate between non-contextual hidden-variables and some probabilistic predictions of quantum

What is Realism in Quantum Mechanics and How Can it be Nonlocal

Abstract The concept of “realism” in quantum mechanics means that results of measurement are caused by physical variables, hidden or observable. Local hidden variables were proved unable to explain

Inductive Logic from the Viewpoint of Quantum Information

The resolving of the main problem of quantum mechanics about how a quantum leap and a smooth motion can be uniformly described resolves also the problem of how a distribution of reliable data and a

Quantum Logic and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

  • R. Hughes
  • Philosophy
    PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association
  • 1980
One problem with assessing quantum logic is that there are considerable differences between its practitioners. In particular they offer different versions of the set of sentences which the logic

Hidden variable theories and quantum nonlocality

We clarify the meaning of Bell's theorem and its implications for the construction of hidden variable theories by considering an example system consisting of two entangled spin-1/2 particles. Using



The Problem of Measurement

The standard theory of measurements in quantum mechanics is reviewed with special emphasis on the conceptual and epistemological implications. It is concluded that the standard theory remains the


In this paper, we shall show how the theory of measurements is to be understood from the point of view of a physical interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variables developed in a

On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox

THE paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen [1] was advanced as an argument that quantum mechanics could not be a complete theory but should be supplemented by additional variables. These additional

Role of the Observer in Quantum Theory

In quantum theory as it is currently formulated the measurement of an observable quantity of a physical system is the occasion for a change of state of the system, except when the state prior to the

Von Neumann's Hidden-Parameter Proof

Because the mathematical form of von Neumann's hidden-parameter proof is not well known, its scope has sometimes been unjustifiably narrowed by commentators. The proof is here reproduced in the more

Discussion of Experimental Proof for the Paradox of Einstein, Rosen, and Podolsky

A brief review of the physical significance of the paradox of Einstein, Rosen, and Podolsky is given, and it is shown that it involves a kind of correlation of the properties of distant