On the Mechanistic Origins of Toughness in Bone

  title={On the Mechanistic Origins of Toughness in Bone},
  author={Maximilien E. Launey and M. Buehler and Robert O. Ritchie},
  journal={Annual Review of Materials Research},
One of the most intriguing protein materials found in nature is bone, a material composed of assemblies of tropocollagen molecules and tiny hydroxyapatite mineral crystals that form an extremely tough, yet lightweight, adaptive and multifunctional material. Bone has evolved to provide structural support to organisms, and therefore its mechanical properties are of great physiological relevance. In this article, we review the structure and properties of bone, focusing on mechanical deformation… 

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