# On the Importance of Random Error in the Study of Probability Judgment. Part I: New Theoretical Developments

@article{Budescu1997OnTI, title={On the Importance of Random Error in the Study of Probability Judgment. Part I: New Theoretical Developments}, author={David V. Budescu and Ido Erev and Thomas S. Wallsten}, journal={Journal of Behavioral Decision Making}, year={1997}, volume={10}, pages={157-171} }

Erev, Wallsten, and Budescu (1994) demonstrated that over- and underconfidence can be observed simultaneously in judgment studies, as a function of the method used to analyze the data. They proposed a general model to account for this apparent paradox, which assumes that overt responses represent true judgments perturbed by random error. To illustrate that the model reproduces the pattern of results, they assumed perfectly calibrated true opinions and a particular form (log-odds plus normally…

## 87 Citations

### Should observed overconfidence be dismissed as a statistical artifact? Critique of Erev, Wallsten, and Budescu (1994)

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It is argued in the present article that decomposing over- and underconfidence into true and artifactual components is inappropriate because the mistake stems from giving primacy to ambiguously defined model constructions (true judgments) over observed data.

### Rejoinder: error in confidence judgments

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The authors show that overconfidence in interval estimates can result from variability in setting interval widths, and that subjective intervals are systematically too narrow given the accuracy of one's information-sometimes only 40% as large as necessary to be well calibrated.

### Overconfidence: It Depends on How, What, and Whom You Ask.

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Determining why some people, some domains, and some types of judgments are more prone to overconfidence will be important to understanding how confidence judgments are made.

### The effects of averaging subjective probability estimates between and within judges.

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Two studies test 3 predictions regarding averaging that follow from theorems based on a cognitive model of the judges and idealizations of the judgment situation, showing the extent to which they hold as the information conditions depart from the ideal and as J increases.

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