# On the First Law of Thermodynamics in Time-Dependent Open Quantum Systems

@inproceedings{Kumar2022OnTF, title={On the First Law of Thermodynamics in Time-Dependent Open Quantum Systems}, author={Parthasarathi Ajit Kumar and Charles A. Stafford}, year={2022} }

How to rigorously deﬁne thermodynamic quantities such as heat, work, and internal energy in open quantum systems driven far from equilibrium remains a signiﬁcant open question in quantum thermodynamics. Heat is a quantity whose fundamental deﬁnition applies only to processes in systems inﬁnitesimally perturbed from equilibrium, and as such, must be accounted for carefully in strongly-driven systems. In this work, an unambiguous operator for the internal energy of an interacting time-dependent…

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