On the Ethics of Using Citation Indices in Evaluations

  title={On the Ethics of Using Citation Indices in Evaluations},
  author={Raymond E. Spier},
  journal={Science and Engineering Ethics},
  • R. Spier
  • Published 4 February 2009
  • Education
  • Science and Engineering Ethics
As dogma has it; the more a paper is cited the better it is. Is it? Papers in which there has been reason to question the experimental outcomes may be highly cited as interested parties seek to use such papers as examples of how not to behave. Two examples are the papers on cold fusion by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons in 1989 (391 citations) (Fleischmann et al. 1989) and on the memory of water by J. Benveniste in 1988 (225 citations) (Davenas et al. 1988) when a solution of an antibody is diluted… 
Aberration of the Citation
Citation-based bibliometrics, however, are unreliable and unscientific measures; citation counts do not mean that a more cited work is of a higher quality or accuracy than a less cited work because citations do not measure the quality and accuracy.
On the current obsession with publication statistics
Crude publication statistics such as publication counts and impact factors are routinely being employed to assess individuals and institutions. Although they can play a role in an approximate
How Should Journal Editors Respond to Cases of Suspected Misconduct?
Journals and institutions have important complementary roles to play in cases of suspected research and publication misconduct and should have policies in place for handling such cases and these policies should respect their different roles.
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Preclinical Research


Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium
Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE
When human polymorphonuclear basophils are exposed to anti-IgE antibodies, they release histamine from their intracellular granules and change their staining properties, and transmission of the biological information could be related to the molecular organization of water.
Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion
  • 1989