On the Concept of Face

@article{Ho1976OnTC,
  title={On the Concept of Face},
  author={David Yau-fai Ho},
  journal={American Journal of Sociology},
  year={1976},
  volume={81},
  pages={867 - 884}
}
  • D. Ho
  • Published 1 January 1976
  • Psychology
  • American Journal of Sociology
The concept of face is clarified and distinguihed from other closely related constructs: authority, standards of behavior, personality, status, dignity, honor, and prestige. The claim to face may rest on the basis of status, whether ascribed or achieved, and on personal or nonpersonal factors; it may also vary according to the group with which a person is interacting. Basic differences are found between the processes involved in gaining versus losing face. While it is not a necessity for one to… 
Face and morality in Confucian society
A critical review of previous literatures indicated that Chinese concepts of face can be differentiated into social face (mianzi) and moral face (lian). The face dynamism in Confucian society was
Effects of face experience on emotions and self-esteem in Japanese culture
Face plays an important role in social life. However, little is known about the psychological consequences of an individual's face experiences. This study examined the effects of face experiences on
Moral face and social face: Contingent self‐esteem in Confucian society
Three empirical studies related to the Chinese concept of face are reviewed to provide examples of the indigenous approach of Chinese psychology. Using the technique of paired comparison, the first
Under What Conditions Do People Feel Face-Loss? Effects of the Presence of Others and Social Roles on the Perception of Losing Face in Japanese Culture
Although face plays an important role in our daily interpersonal interactions, little is known about how people perceive face-loss. An open-ended survey revealed that the need to protect face
The Feeling of “Face” in Confucian Society: From a Perspective of Psychosocial Equilibrium
TLDR
This article adopts a perspective of psychosocial equilibrium to elaborate people’s feeling of face in Taiwan, a Confucian society to explain how losing face is felt due to unbalance of psychOSocial equilibrium with one's relation in that specific context.
Power, integrity, and mask – An attempt to disentangle the Chinese face concept
Abstract Using the term face to explain interactional phenomena has been important in language pragmatics since Brown and Levinson (1987) adopted Goffman's (1955) concept in their theory of
The concept of facework: Its functions in the Hawaii model of mediation
Face facilitates cross-cultural conflict resolution in Hawaii. A concept of east Asian origin, face is a subtle style of interpersonal encounter calculated to avoid personal embarrassment, or loss of
The jury and abjury of my peers: the self in face and dignity cultures.
TLDR
Across 3 experiments, dignity culture participants showed a studied indifference to the judgments of their peers, ignoring peers' assessments--whether those assessments were public or private, were positive or negative, or were made by qualified peers or unqualified peers.
The Measurement of Face Pressure and its Role in Consumer Behavior
Numerous Chinese academics have asserted that face, defined as prestige that one holds or that is recognized by others through one’s success or social position (Chan et al 2003), is vital to Chinese
Information, Perspective, and Judgments About the Self in Face and Dignity Cultures
TLDR
Asian Americans felt the greatest need for moral cleansing when thinking about how others would judge their many (vs. few) transgressions, and Anglo-Americans responded to information about their transgressions or friendships, but effects were pronounced only when other people were not invoked.
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