On sound generated aerodynamically II. Turbulence as a source of sound

  title={On sound generated aerodynamically II. Turbulence as a source of sound},
  author={Michael James Lighthill},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences},
  pages={1 - 32}
  • M. Lighthill
  • Published 23 February 1954
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
The theory of sound generated aerodynamically is extended by taking into account the statistical properties of turbulent airflows, from which the sound radiated (without the help of solid boundaries) is called aerodynamic noise. The theory is developed with special reference to the noise of jets, for which a detailed comparison with experiment is made (§7 for subsonic jets, §8 for supersonic ones). The quadrupole distribution of part I (Lighthill 1952) is shown to behave (see §3) as if it were… 
The noise from turbulence convected at high speed
The theory initiated by Lighthill (1952) for the purpose of estimating the sound radiated from a turbulent fluid flow is extended to deal with both the transonic and supersonic ranges of eddy
Sound generated aerodynamically revisited: large-scale structures in a turbulent jet as a source of sound
  • R. Mankbadi, Joseph T. C. Liu
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1984
Lighthill’s formulation of the aerodynamic sound problem (Lighthill, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 211, 564 (1952)) is here considered as fundamental to the sound generated by real turbulent jets. For
Sound Generation by Turbulent Two-Phase Flow,
Abstract : Sound generation by turbulent two-phase flow is considered by the methods of Lighthill's theory of aerodynamic noise. An inhomogeneous wave equation is derived, in which the effects of one
On the Aerodynamic Noise of a Turbulent Jet
Summary A new model is advanced for analyzing the broad-spectrum noise of a turbulent jet. The shear layer bounding the turbulent jet is assumed to play an important role in modifying the "quadrupole
On the Noise Radiated from a Turbulent High Speed Jet
The study of noise radiated from aero dynamically unsteady fluid flows was studied by Lighthill, who showed there exists an “acoustic analogy” whereby the exact fluid flow can be replaced by an
Sound generation by turbulence and surfaces in arbitrary motion
The Lighthill-Curle theory of aerodynamic sound is extended to include arbitrary convective motion. The Kirchhoff description of a homogeneous wave field in terms of surface boundary conditions is
An Investigation of the Noise Produced by a Subsonic Air Jet
To investigate the theoretical predictions of Lighthill on aerodynamic sound, measurements have been made of the sound field of a 1 in. air jet issuing from a long pipe. The measurements have been
Contributions to the theory of aerodynamic sound, with application to excess jet noise and the theory of the flute
This paper describes a reformulation of the Lighthill (1952) theory of aerodynamic sound. A revised approach to the subject is necessary in order to unify the various ad hoc procedures which have
The excess noise field of subsonic jets
The sound field generated by the interaction of spatial instabilities on the shear layer shed from a duct with the nozzle lip is studied. It is shown that the intensity varies with direction θ from
Refraction of Sound Emitted Near Solid Boundaries From a Sheared Jet
AbstractA mathematical model is developed to describe the sound emitted from an arbitrarypoint within a turbulent flow near solid boundaries. A unidirectional, transversely-sheared mean flow is


The vortex motion causing edge tones
A detailed investigation has been made of the tones produced when a jet of air strikes an edge, with velocities extending from the lowest possible to those in the neighbourhood of the Reynolds