On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being.

  title={On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being.},
  author={Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
  • R. Ryan, E. Deci
  • Published 1 February 2001
  • Psychology
  • Annual review of psychology
Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research on well-being has been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach, which focuses on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance; and the eudaimonic approach, which focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. These two views have given rise to different… 

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Cognitive, Affective and Eudemonic Well-Being in Later Life: Measurement Equivalence over Gender and Life Stage

A multidimensional structure of well-being, distinguishing cognitive, affective and eudemonic well- Being, is shown to be the best fitting empirical solution and is neutral to gender in its measurement.

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Will searching for meaning bring well-being?

: Studies on well-being have been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach and the eudaimonic approach. “Flourishing”, being a newly holistic, comprehensive and structural standard

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Studies in the areas of goal pursuit and well-being suggest that the goals people work toward in their daily lives are important contributors of well-being. However, research to date has focused

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Most people want to be happy. But if happiness, or well-being, comes in different forms, which one should they pursue? Some researchers do argue that the traditional hedonic view of life satisfaction

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Positive psychology aims at catalyzing a change in the focus of psychology from preoccupation only with repairing the worst things in life to also building positive qualities. A key interest of

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In recent years, well-being researchers have distinguished between eudaimonic happiness (e.g., meaning and purpose; taking part in activities that allow for the actualization of one's skills,

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Throughout history, two conceptions of happiness have been advocated. The hedonic ideal, which often predominates in modern Western societies, advocates enjoyment and avoidance of pain. The



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Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this

Subjective well-being.

  • E. Diener
  • Psychology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1984
The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on

Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment.

Aristotle's concept of eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment constitute 2 philosophical conceptions of happiness. Two studies involving combined samples of undergraduate and graduate students (Study 1, N

Personal projects, happiness, and meaning: on doing well and being yourself.

Personal Projects Analysis (B. R. Little, 1983) was adapted to examine relations between participants' appraisals of their goal characteristics and orthogonal happiness and meaning factors that

Personality and well-being: reexamining methods and meanings.

Distinctive personality correlates were observed for the 6 PWB outcomes: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, and purpose in life were linked with Neuroticism (N) Extraversion (E) and Conscientiousness (C) and personal growth was linked with Openness to Experience (O) and E.

On energy, personality, and health: subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being.

Subjective vitality is shown to be lower in people with chronic pain compared to matched controls, especially those who perceive their pain to be disabling or frightening, and is further associated with self-motivation and maintained weight loss among patients treated for obesity.

Further Examining the American Dream: Differential Correlates of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals

Empirical research and organismic theories suggest that lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards or praise relatively central to one's personality in comparison

The structure of psychological well-being revisited.

  • C. RyffC. Keyes
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1995
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Revitalization through Self-Regulation: The Effects of Autonomous and Controlled Motivation on Happiness and Vitality

Three studies examined the effects of experimentally induced motivational orientations on the subtly different positive affects of vitality and happiness. We hypothesized, based on self-determination

Psychological Well-Being in Adult Life

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