On feeding on more than one trophic level

@article{Pimm1978OnFO,
  title={On feeding on more than one trophic level},
  author={Stuart L. Pimm and John H. Lawton},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1978},
  volume={275},
  pages={542-544}
}
IN trying to understand the structure of ecological communities, ecologists usually pay particular attention to the interactions between pairs, or small groups of species1. Questions about the ‘shape’ of the food webs within which these species are embedded are much more rarely asked2–4. For example, what happens when a population feeds at more than one trophic level (omnivory)? In some real food webs there seem to be no omnivores (Fig. 1a)5; in others omnivores are common6,7 (Fig. 1c)8. In… 
Properties of food webs
TLDR
Confirmation of all these predictions from stability analyses suggests that system stability places necessary, though not sufficient, limitations on the possible shapes of food webs.
The return of the trophic chain: fundamental vs realized interactions in a simple arthropod food web
TLDR
The results show that trophic links assumed to occur when species are confronted in pairs do not necessarily occur when other components of the community are present, and food web complexity in terms of connectance may be erroneously over-estimated in theoretical community modules that are parameterized based on pair-wise interactions.
Limits to Trophic Levels and Omnivory in Complex Food Webs: Theory and Data
TLDR
It is shown that most (54%) of the 212 species in the four food webs can be unambiguously assigned to a discrete trophic level and Omnivory among the remaining species appears to be quite limited, as judged by the standard deviation of omnivores’ energy‐weighted food‐chain lengths.
Omnivory and the stability of simple food webs
TLDR
Both bacterivorous and predatory species with higher degrees of omnivory showed more stable dynamics, measured using time until extinction and the temporal variability of population density, supporting the prediction that longer food chains will be less stable dynamically.
Trophic Levels in Complex Food Webs : Theory and Data
While trophic levels have found broad application throughout ecology, they are also in much contention on analytical and empirical grounds. Here, we use a new generation of data and theory to examine
A terrestrial field experiment showing the impact of eliminating top predators on foliage damage
TLDR
An experiment with lizards, spiders, herbivorous arthropods and sea grape, that indicates that the impact of top predators on producers depends on the relative strengths of interactions among the upper tropic levels.
Conditions for Eltonian Pyramids in Lotka-Volterra Food Chains
  • T. Jonsson
  • Environmental Science
    Scientific Reports
  • 2017
TLDR
It is shown that Eltonian pyramids are difficult to reproduce without density-dependent mortality in the consumers, unless biologically plausible relationships between mortality rate and interaction strength are taken into account.
Omnivory and the stability of food webs.
  • J. Vandermeer
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of theoretical biology
  • 2006
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES
Food Web Complexity and Species Diversity
  • R. Paine
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1966
It is suggested that local animal species diversity is related to the number of predators in the system and their efficiency in preventing single species from monopolizing some important, limiting,
Number of trophic levels in ecological communities
TLDR
This work believes that the number of trophic levels is constrained by population dynamics and not by ecological energetics.
Ecology of Insect Host-Parasitoid Communities
  • D. Force
  • Environmental Science
    Science
  • 1974
TLDR
After studying several of the more important parasitoid species, it is evident to me that there is little or nothing about their interactions that might induce greater community stability.
Food webs and niche space.
  • J. E. Cohen
  • Economics
    Monographs in population biology
  • 1978
TLDR
It is shown that within habitats of a certain limited physical and temporal heterogeneity, the overlaps among niches, along their trophic dimensions, can be represented in a one-dimensional niche space far more often than would be expected by chance alone and perhaps always.
Food webs and the dimensionality of trophic niche space.
  • J. E. Cohen
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1977
TLDR
An analysis of 30 food webs suggests that a niche space of dimension 1 suffices, with unexpectedly high frequency and perhaps always, to describe the trophic niche overlaps implied by real food webs in single habitats.
Trophic Relationships of 8 Sympatric Predatory Gastropods
tivated the maize on his own farm and permitted sampling beyond the stage at which he would have harvested it for silage. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Louis W. and Maud Hill Family
The dynamics of arthropod predator-prey systems.
  • M. Hassell
  • Environmental Science
    Monographs in population biology
  • 1978
In this study of arthropod predador-prey systems Michael Hassell shows how many of the components of predation may be simply modeled in order to reveal their effects on the overall dynamics of the
FURTHER ELABORATION OF THE WINTER MOTH POPULATION MODELS
TLDR
The model is unsatisfactory because it neither seeks to describe predator behaviour, nor generates a predator population estimate which can be compared with observed figures.
Studies on the Ecology of English Heaths: III. Animal Communities of the Felling and Burn Successions at Oxshott Heath, Surrey
TLDR
The following account gives the results of a primary survey of the animals of the felled and burnt parts of the Common made in 1922-5, with much pleasure in acknowledging assistance in identification given.
Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour.
Wynne-Edwards has written this interesting and important book as a sequel to his earlier (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour. Reviewing it has proven to be a valuable task for
...
1
2
...