On cosmic ray astrophysics

  title={On cosmic ray astrophysics},
  author={V. Ginzburg},
This chapter presents a model for the propagation of cosmic rays. It discusses beam instability and plasma effects in cosmic rays. The chapter discusses transfer equation in the diffusion approximation. It describes the simplifications of the transfer equations in the case of the proton–nuclear and electron components. Only charged particles (protons, nuclei, electrons, and positrons) of cosmic origins and only those with sufficiently high energies are called cosmic rays. The main quantity… Expand
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