On benefits of indirect defence: short- and long-term studies of antiherbivore protection via mutualistic ants

@article{Heil2001OnBO,
  title={On benefits of indirect defence: short- and long-term studies of antiherbivore protection via mutualistic ants},
  author={Martin Heil and Brigitte Fiala and Ulrich W.J. Maschwitz and Karl Eduard Linsenmair},
  journal={Oecologia},
  year={2001},
  volume={126},
  pages={395-403}
}
Many plants are defended indirectly by mutualistic animals. In this field study, we investigated the efficacy of indirect antiherbivore defence in symbiotic and non-symbiotic ant-plant associations in three Macaranga species. We tested whether obligate interactions are more effective than facultative ones by comparing ant-free plants, or parts of plants, with untreated controls. All three species gained significant protection from the ants' presence. The efficacy of defence was higher in the… CONTINUE READING
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