A Survey on Smart Grid Communication Infrastructures: Motivations, Requirements and Challenges
A perfect bidirectional communication network is a common assumption in smart grids. However, it is unrealistic, especially in the neighborhood area network of microgrids. Due to the channel fading, large volumes of transmission data, and considerable communication cost, the imperfect communications affect the system performance directly. In this paper, we consider the uncertainty of imperfect communications in both supply and demand sides, which affects the microgrid system performance in terms of the packet loss ratio of the power demand data transmission and the forecasting accuracy ratio of the renewable energy generation. We analyze the impacts of imperfect communications on the demand response management (DRM) performance under the real-time pricing scheme. An optimization problem is formulated first to maximize the DRM performance of the microgrid system. As these impacts can be mitigated by using sufficient spectrum resources, we then propose a spectrum resource allocation scheme that considers different characteristics of transmission data and system communication cost to balance the tradeoff between the DRM performance and the incurred communication cost. We introduce a joint optimization problem that not only maximizes the DRM performance but also minimizes the communication cost. Simulation results reveal the impacts of imperfect communications on the DRM performance and power price, and the efficiency of the proposed optimization problems.