On Atmospheric Loss of Oxygen Ions from Earth Through Magnetospheric Processes

@article{Seki2001OnAL,
  title={On Atmospheric Loss of Oxygen Ions from Earth Through Magnetospheric Processes},
  author={Kanako Seki and Richard Elphic and M. Hirahara and Toshio Terasawa and Tokuo Mukai},
  journal={Science},
  year={2001},
  volume={291},
  pages={1939 - 1941}
}
In Earth's environment, the observed polar outflow rate for O+ ions, the main source of oxygen above gravitational escape energy, corresponds to the loss of ∼18% of the present-day atmospheric oxygen over 3 billion years. However, part of this apparent loss can actually be returned to the atmosphere. Examining loss rates of four escape routes with high-altitude spacecraft observations, we show that the total oxygen loss rate inferred from current knowledge is about one order of magnitude… Expand
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