Omega-3 and polyunsaturated fat for prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials

@article{Deane2021Omega3AP,
  title={Omega-3 and polyunsaturated fat for prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials},
  author={Katherine H.O. Deane and Oluseyi Florence Jimoh and Priti Biswas and Alex T O'Brien and Sarah Hanson and Asmaa Abdelhamid and Chris Fox and Lee Hooper},
  journal={The British Journal of Psychiatry},
  year={2021},
  volume={218},
  pages={135 - 142}
}
Background There is strong public belief that polyunsaturated fats protect against and ameliorate depression and anxiety. Aims To assess effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6 or total polyunsaturated fat on prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms. Method We searched widely (Central, Medline and EMBASE to April 2017, trial registers to September 2016, ongoing trials updated to August 2019), including trials of adults with or without depression or anxiety, randomised to… 
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Omega-3, omega-6, and total dietary polyunsaturated fat for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
TLDR
Evidence suggests that increasing α-linolenic acid, omega-6, or total PUFA has little or no effect on prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and no evidence was found that the omega-3/omega-6 ratio is important for diabetes or glucose metabolism.
Creation of a database to assess effects of omega-3, omega-6 and total polyunsaturated fats on health: methodology for a set of systematic reviews
TLDR
This extensive database of trials is available to allow assessment of further health outcomes and to develop methods to assess effects of increasing omega-6, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), long-chain omega-3 (LCn3) and total PUFA on health outcomes.
Meta-analysis and meta-regression of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for major depressive disorder
TLDR
Future precision medicine trials should establish whether possible interactions between EPA and antidepressants could provide targets to improve antidepressant response and its prediction, and potential long-term biochemical side effects of high-dosed add-on EPA supplementation should be carefully monitored.
Efficacy of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of depression
TLDR
Among participants with diagnosed depression, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-predominant formulations (>50% EPA) demonstrated clinical benefits compared with placebo (Hedge's G = 0.61, P<0.001); EPA failed to prevent depressive symptoms among populations not diagnosed for depression.
The Relationship Between Omega-3, Omega-6 and Total Polyunsaturated Fat and Musculoskeletal Health and Functional Status in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of RCTs
TLDR
There is an indication that omega-3 may improve BMD, high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm this and effects on other musculoskeletal outcomes, and trials assessing effects of increasing Omega-3, omega-6 and total PUFA on functional status, bone and skeletal muscle strength are limited.
Omega-3, omega-6 and total dietary polyunsaturated fat on cancer incidence: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials
TLDR
The most extensive systematic review to assess the effects of increasing PUFAs on cancer risk found increasing total PUFA may very slightly increase cancer risk, offset by small protective effects on cardiovascular diseases.
Omega-6 fats for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
TLDR
Low-quality evidence suggests increasing omega-6 fats reduces total serum cholesterol a little in the long term (mean difference (MD) -0.33 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 1.02, 609 events, 4606 participants, 7 trials, low- quality evidence).
Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
TLDR
Effect of increased intake of fish- and plant-based omega-3 for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CVD) events, adiposity and lipids is assessed and it is suggested that LCn3 probably makes little or no difference to CHD event risk.
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