Olfactory function distinguishes vascular parkinsonism from Parkinson’s disease

@article{Katzenschlager2004OlfactoryFD,
  title={Olfactory function distinguishes vascular parkinsonism from Parkinson’s disease},
  author={Regina Katzenschlager and Jan C. M. Zijlmans and Andrew H Evans and Hilary Watt and Andrew John Lees},
  journal={Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery \& Psychiatry},
  year={2004},
  volume={75},
  pages={1749 - 1752}
}
Objective: To compare olfactory function in vascular parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease diagnosed according to published clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods: The University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT) was carried out in 14 patients with vascular parkinsonism, 18 with Parkinson’s disease, and 27 normal controls matched for age, sex, and smoking status. Results: UPSIT scores in vascular parkinsonism (mean 26.1, 95% confidence interval, 23.1 to 29.0) were significantly… 
Clinicoradiological comparison between vascular parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease
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VP can be clinically distinguished from PD based on sudden onset of parkinsonism at an older age, characterised by lower body predominance, urinary incontinence, pyramidal signs, postural instability with freezing of gait and falls, and dementia.
Odor Identification Function Differs between Vascular Parkinson ismand Akinetic-Type Parkinson's Disease
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The olfactory identification test is non-invasive, convenient, and useful to distinguish VP from PD as a screening test.
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Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been described for more than thirty years and known as one of the commonest non-motor symptoms in PD. Recently, it attracts widespread attention
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TLDR
The smell tests’ ability in differentiating PD from other neurological disorders still deserves more attention in future studies, and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was the most used test to assess the olfactory function of PD.
Decreased olfactory bulb volume in idiopathic Parkinson's disease detected by 3.0‐Tesla magnetic resonance imaging
A number of neuropathological studies have demonstrated that the olfactory system is among the first brain regions affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). These findings correlate with
[Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: its role as a new cardinal sign in early and differential diagnosis].
TLDR
Olfactory tests may significantly enhance the diagnostic armamentarium in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes and indeterminate tremors and prove to be a useful aid in the early or "preclinical" detection of PD, once effective disease-modifying therapies are found.
Differentiating vascular parkinsonism from idiopathic Parkinson's disease: A systematic review
TLDR
Studies comparing clinical, neuroimaging and other investigations that might distinguish vascular parkinsonism from idiopathic Parkinson's disease are reviewed to find no specific abnormal structural imaging pattern for VP.
Olfactory dysfunction as a predictor of neurodegenerative disease
TLDR
It is argued that further characterization and a deeper understanding of olfactory deficits in these neurodegenerative diseases at the molecular, cellular, and systems levels will augment the acumen for preclinical detection and elucidate pathogenic mechanisms to guide the development of new therapeutic modalities.
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