Oldest known sea turtle

  title={Oldest known sea turtle},
  author={Ren Hirayama},
  • R. Hirayama
  • Published 16 April 1998
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • Nature
Reptiles constitute a primarily terrestrial assemblage, but several groups returned to the marine environment after the first appearance of reptiles in the late Palaeozoic era. Successful diversification of the chelonioid sea turtles, particularly during the Cretaceous period, was perhaps one of the most important events in the history of turtles (and marine reptiles). The fossil record of chelonioids before the Late Cretaceous has been poorly documented. Here I report the discovery of an… 
The shell bone histology of fossil and extant marine turtles revisited
A review of previously published as well as unpublished data of shell microstructures of these groups and those of some of the earliest aquatic turtles from the Middle Jurassic show that bones are strongly influenced functionally as a result of life spent in an aquatic medium, whereas there are little to no characters of systematic value in the bones.
A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods
New evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic beds of Morocco, further supports the hypothesis that marine life was, at least locally, very diversified just prior to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene biotic crisis.
Comparative cranial morphology of the Late Cretaceous protostegid sea turtle Desmatochelys lowii
The results of the phenetic study show that Desmatochelys lowii is least similar to the other examined taxa in regards to the nature of its bone contacts, and therefore suggests a placement outside Americhelydia for this protostegid sea turtle.
New Sea Turtle from the Miocene of Peru and the Iterative Evolution of Feeding Ecomorphologies since the Cretaceous
A phylogenetic analysis of Pacifichelys and other pan-chelonioid sea turtle lineages shows that at least seven lineages independently evolved feeding specialized for shearing or crushing.
A primitive protostegid from Australia and early sea turtle evolution
The postcranially primitive Ctenochelys and Toxochelys are interpreted as crown-group sea turtles closely related to living cheloniids, but the new phylogeny suggests that they are transitional (intermediate stem-taxa) between continental testudines and derived, pelagic chelonioids.
The first South American sandownid turtle from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia
The morphology of L. cipadi indicates that sandownids were not open marine turtles, but instead littoral to shallow marine durophagous dwellers, which supports once again the monophyly of Sandownidae.
New material of the Late Cretaceous marine turtle Ctenochelys acris Zangerl, 1953 and a phylogenetic reassessment of the ‘toxochelyid’-grade taxa
This analysis supports the placement of protostegids outside of Chelonioidea as marine eucryptodirans and establishes Ctenochelys spp.
The Evolution of Marine Reptiles
  • R. Motani
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Evolution: Education and Outreach
  • 2009
There were more than a dozen groups of marine reptiles in the Mesozoic, of which four had more than 30 genera, namely sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), ichthyopterygian, mosasaurs, and sea turtles, who explored many different swimming styles and diets.


Skeletal morphology and relationships of the early Cretaceous side-necked turtle, Araripemys barretoi (Testudines: Pelomedusoides: Araripemydidae), from the Santana Formation of Brazil
Examination of 35 skeletal characters in six living and nine extinct taxa suggest that there are four distinct clades in the Pelomedusidae (sensu lato).
Ancient marine reptiles
J.M. Moody, The Paleogeography of Marine and Coastal Turtles of the North Atlantic and Trans-Saharan Regions and G.L. Bell, Jr., Phylogenetic Revision of North American and Adriatic Mosasauridea.
Tests of turtle phylogeny: molecular, morphological, and paleontological approaches.
Branch-length analysis and independent dates from the fossil record suggest that these unresolved nodes may represent a rapid radiation of the major cryptodiran lineages 90-120 million years ago.
Phylogenetic systematics of chelonioid sea turtles
Chelonioid sea turtles (Order Testudinata; Superfamily Chelonioidea) first appear in the early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) and there has been no inclusive attempt to provide an analysis of cladistic relationships among this group.
The Biology of Sea Turtles
Physiology as Integrated Systems Amanda Southwood Williard Vision Kerstin A. Lohmann The Skeleton: An In Vivo View of Structure Jeanette Wyneken Age and Age Estimation in Sea Turtles Larisa Avens and Melissa L. Snover molecular Genetics of Sea Turtles.
Biology of the Reptilia
  • C. Gans
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • 1969
Why Study Reptilian Development? The Origin and Development of Oocytes Embryology of Turtles Embryology of Marine Turtles Development of Crocodilians Embryology of the Tuatara Some Developmental
Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution
"Carroll has to his credit an immense amount of useful labour in writing the book and will probably corner the market for a vertebrate paleontology text for the rest of this century." Nature