Oldest known fossils of monocotyledons

  title={Oldest known fossils of monocotyledons},
  author={Maria A. Gandolfo and Kevin C Nixon and W. Crepet and Dennis W. Stevenson and Else Marie Friis},
The monocotyledonous angiosperm clade (class Liliopsida) includes roughly 50,000 species of diverse forms. The group comprises such economically noticeable plants as palms, orchids, most of the horticultural bulbs, and grasses, which include some of the most important food crops, such as maize, rice and other grains. Modern monocotyledons are diverse and dominate many habitats, but the fossil record of these plants is meagre, fossils of monocotyledonous flowers are rare, and the earliest… 
Early Cretaceous lineages of monocot flowering plants.
  • K. Bremer
  • Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2000
Plastid DNA rbcL sequences and eight reference fossils indicate that approximately 14 of the extant monocot lineages may have diverged from each other during the Early Cretaceous >100 million years B.P.
Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms.
Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous.
Triuridaceae fossil flowers from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey.
Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data from a broad sample of extant monocots confirm the affinities of the fossils with modern Triuridaceae, supporting the interpretation that the extinct plants were also achlorophyllous and saprophytic.
Rise from the ashes - the reconstruction of charcoal fossil flowers.
The fossil record provides a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary history and past diversity of life. Without making use of palaeontological data, a comprehensive understanding of the
Fossil Ericales from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey
The flower fossils have some interesting characteristics suggestive of well-developed relationships with pollinating insects, including, in one of the species, pollen grains united by fine threads and anther spurs often associated with hymenopteran pollination in modern taxa.
The Abominable Mystery
The question of how flowering plants (called angiosperms) evolved and their relationship to other plants has puzzled botanists for a century--a riddle that Charles Darwin called the "abominable
A Whole Plant Herbaceous Angiosperm from the Middle Jurassic of China
The Middle Jurassic age recommends Juraherba as the earliest record of herbaceous seed plants, demanding a refresh look at the evolutionary history of angiosperms.
Contribution of pollen and tapetal characters to the systematics of Triuridaceae
Pollen and tapetal characters in the mycoheterotrophic monocot family Triuridaceae are compared with those of their putative relatives, including the lilioid order Pandanales, with which Triurids have recently been associated following analyses of molecular data.
Flower-Related Fossils from the Jurassic
Schmeissneria, Xingxueanthus and Solaranthus are three female or bisexual organs of plants found in the Middle Jurassic in China and the Early Jurassic in Europe that demonstrate the existence of enclosed ovule in the organ, satisfying the criterion for angiosperms.
Araceae from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal: evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons.
The new fossil provides unequivocal evidence of monocots in early angiosperm assemblages that also include a variety of key "magnoliid" lineages but only a limited diversity of eudicots.


Fossilized flowers of ericalean affinity are reported from the Turonian of New Jersey, and are the oldest known floral remains of Ericales, raising the possibility that such specific pollinator-plant relationships had developed by the mid-Cretaceous.
Cretaceous floras containing angiosperm flowers and fruits from eastern North America
Abstract A recent innovation in paleobotanical studies of the Cretaceous has been the use of bulk sediment disaggregation and sieving techniques. This approach has identified numerous Cretaceous
Timing in the evolution of derived floral characters: upper cretaceous (turonian) taxa with tricolpate and tricolpate-derived pollen
New data on floral structure from the Turonian of the Atlantic Coastal Plain reveal a surprising diversity of floral characters in taxa bearing tricolpate and tricolporate-derived pollen, which suggest that rather specific modes of insect pollination already existed at 90 Ma.
A Phylogenetic Structure for the Monocotyledons, as Inferred from Chloroplast DNA Restriction Site Variation, and a Comparison of Measures of Clade Support
Phylogenetic relationships within the monocots were analyzed by cladistic analysis of restriction site and length variation in the inverted repeat region of the chloroplast genomes of 52 taxa to generate three measures of clade stability.