Older bull elephants control young males

  title={Older bull elephants control young males},
  author={Rob Slotow and Gus van Dyk and Joyce H. Poole and Bruce R. Page and Andre Klocke},
Musth is a state of heightened sexual and aggressive activity in male elephants. Between 1992 and 1997, young orphaned musth male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) that had been introduced to Pilanesberg, South Africa, killed more than 40 white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). The killing ceased after six older male elephants were introduced from the relatively normal Kruger Park population. The deviant behaviour of the young Pilanesberg males was rectified by the consequent reduction in… Expand
Ranging of older male elephants introduced to an existing small population without older males: Pilanesberg National Park
The African elephant Loxodonta africana is one of the key components of African savanna. Not only do they play a crucial role in the ecosystem (Dublin et al. 1990; Van de Vijver et al. 1999), butExpand
Killing of black and white rhinoceroses by African elephants in Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, South Africa
Fifty-eight white rhinos and five black rhinos were killed by elephants in Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park between 1991 and 2001. The culprits were probably young male elephants that are entering musthExpand
Age, musth and paternity success in wild male African elephants, Loxodonta africana
A genetic paternity analysis of a well-studied population of wild African elephants showed that older males had markedly elevated paternity success compared with younger males, suggesting the possibility of sexual selection for longevity in this species. Expand
Adolescence in male African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and the importance of sociality
Adolescent males were the most sociable age group, showing preferences for larger social groupings and being in closer proximity to other elephants; later adolescent males (ages 16–20) showed a tendency for higher social levels. Expand
Musth and its effects on male–male and male–female associations in Asian elephants
The results suggest that musth seems to be primarily a roving strategy for old males to find and associate with females and not a strategy for young males to gain a temporary advantage over old males, within the broad age-classes that the authors examined. Expand
Male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) queue when the stakes are high
This is the first study to quantify the existence of a linear dominance hierarchy in male African elephants as well as the effect of climatic fluctuations on dominance from year to year. Expand
Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants
The results indicate that trophy hunting and ivory poaching, both of which target older bulls, may have substantial behavioral and genetic effects on elephant populations and are critical to the current debate on methods for managing and controlling increasing populations of this species. Expand
Chemical Signaling and Resource Use by African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana)
African elephants, Loxodonta africana, are a polygynous, sexually dimorphic species. Females reside in close-knit family groups of related females. Male elephants seek out and compete for sexuallyExpand
Why do elephants damage savanna trees
It is argued that this and other 'fanning' hypotheses are group-selectionist and are thus not evolutionarily stable strategies and suggest that excessive damage to trees is more likely to be due to social or sexual factors. Expand
Why Do African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) Simulate Oestrus? An Analysis of Longitudinal Data
It is suggested that parous females in the Amboseli elephant population most likely exhibit false oestrus behaviours in order to demonstrate to naïve relatives at whom to direct their behaviour. Expand


Musth in the African elephant, Loxodonta africana
It is shown that musth does occur in the African elephant and that its manifestations are similar to those in the Asian elephant. Expand
Musth and urinary testosterone concentrations in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).
A correlation between the observed behavioural characteristics of musth and urinary testosterone levels is supported and male testosterone concentrations were significantly greater in males that were in or around the time of behavioural musth. Expand
Rutting Behavior in African Elephants: the Phenomenon of Musth
Although the musth periods of male elephants are asynchronous the phenomenon can functionally be considered a rutting period, and the physical and behavioral manifestations of musth in elephants are similar to those described for other male mammals during rut. Expand
Announcing intent: the aggressive state of musth in African elephants
Predictions derived from game theory suggest that animals should not signal their intentions during conflict situations. However, during the period of musth, male elephants,Loxodonta africana,Expand
Chemical Profiles of Male African Elephants, Loxodonta africana: Physiological and Ecological Implications
Chemical data support the behavioral observations by ourselves and other researchers that male African elephants experience musth, and reveals many similarities between the chemical con­ stituents of the temporal-gland secretions of thesemale African elephants and the com­ pounds identified in male Asian elephants. Expand
Assessment strategy and the evolution of fighting behaviour.
  • G. Parker
  • Economics, Medicine
  • Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1974
Predictions compatible with the observations are given, indicating that RHP loss alone can be adequate to explain withdrawal: escalation behaviour. Expand
The logic of asymmetric contests
Abstract A theoretical analysis is made of the evolution of behavioural strategies in contest situations. It is assumed that behaviour will evolve so as to maximize individual fitness. If so, aExpand