Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era

  title={Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era},
  author={Edward R. Cook and Richard Seager and Yochanan Kushnir and Keith R. Briffa and Ulf B{\"u}ntgen and David C. Frank and Paul J Krusic and Willy Tegel and Gerard van der Schrier and Laia Andreu‐Hayles and Michael G. L. Baillie and Claudia Baittinger and Niels Bleicher and Niels A Bonde and David Brown and Marco Carrer and Richard J. Cooper and Katarina {\vC}ufar and Christoph Dittmar and Jan Esper and Carol B. Griggs and Bj{\"o}rn E. Gunnarson and B. G{\"u}nther and Emilia Guti{\'e}rrez and Kristof Haneca and Samuli Helama and Franz Herzig and Karl Uwe Heussner and J. Hofmann and Pavel Janda and Raymond Kontic and Nesibe K{\"o}se and Tom{\'a}{\vs} Kyncl and Tom Levani{\vc} and Hans W. Linderholm and Sturt W. Manning and Thomas M. Melvin and Daniel Miles and Burkhard Neuwirth and Kurt Nicolussi and Paola Nola and Momchil Panayotov and Ionela Popa and Andreas Rothe and Kristina Seftigen and Andrea Seim and Helene Svarva and Miroslav Svoboda and Terje Thun and Mauri Timonen and R. Touchan and Volodymyr Trotsiuk and Valerie Trouet and Felix Walder and Tomasz Ważny and Rob J S Wilson and Christian S. Zang},
  journal={Science Advances},
An atlas of megadroughts in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era provides insights into climate variability. Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other “Old World” climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed… 

Megadroughts in the Common Era and the Anthropocene

Exceptional drought events, known as megadroughts, have occurred on every continent outside Antarctica over the past ~2,000 years, causing major ecological and societal disturbances. In this Review,

An overview of climate variability in Finland during the Common Era

  • S. Helama
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2017
Quantitative palaeoclimate estimates of past summer temperature and moisture (Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI) variability were derived from tree-ring based products of gridded reconstructions

Past megadroughts in central Europe were longer, more severe and less warm than modern droughts

Megadroughts are notable manifestations of the American Southwest, but not so much of the European climate. By using long-term hydrological and meteorological observations, as well as paleoclimate

Late Holocene droughts in the Fertile Crescent recorded in a speleothem from northern Iraq

Droughts have had large impacts on past and present societies. High‐resolution paleoclimate data are essential to place recent droughts in a meaningful historical context and to predict regional

New Tree-Ring Evidence from the Pyrenees Reveals Western Mediterranean Climate Variability since Medieval Times

AbstractPaleoclimatic evidence is necessary to place the current warming and drying of the western Mediterranean basin in a long-term perspective of natural climate variability. Annually resolved and

European hydroclimate response to volcanic eruptions over the past nine centuries

The climatic aftermath of the 1815 Tambora eruption in Europe suggests that large volcanic eruptions can introduce environmental and societal consequences in this region. Here, we analyse the

Dendroclimatology and historical climatology of Voronezh region, European Russia, since 1790s

Existing high‐resolution reconstructions of hydroclimate variability in Europe are lacking natural proxy data from European Russia. For this reason, developing new hydroclimate proxies for this vast

Persistent multi-scale fluctuations shift European hydroclimate to its millennial boundaries

The authors show that since the beginning of the 20th century, hydroclimatic conditions have shifted to their millennial boundaries, remaining at these extreme levels for a period of unprecedented duration.

A tree ring-based hydroclimate reconstruction for eastern Europe reveals large-scale teleconnection patterns

We present a new beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree-ring width composite chronology from five natural low-elevation forests in eastern Romania, which represent the species’ continental distribution



Megadroughts in North America: placing IPCC projections of hydroclimatic change in a long‐term palaeoclimate context

IPCC Assessment Report 4 model projections suggest that the subtropical dry zones of the world will both dry and expand poleward in the future due to greenhouse warming. The US Southwest is

Spatiotemporal drought variability in northwestern Africa over the last nine centuries

Changes in precipitation patterns and the frequency and duration of drought are likely to be the feature of anthropogenic climate change that will have the most direct and most immediate consequences

Multicentennial megadrought in northern Europe coincided with a global El Niño–Southern Oscillation drought pattern during the Medieval Climate Anomaly

The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a pacemaker of global climate, and the accu- rate prediction of future climate change requires an understanding of the ENSO variability. Recently,

A tree-ring field reconstruction of Fennoscandian summer hydroclimate variability for the last millennium

Hydroclimatological extremes, such as droughts and floods, are expected to increase in frequency and intensity with global climate change. An improved knowledge of its natural variability and the


ABSTRACT: Water resources are the lifeblood of the Near East region. Careful planning and management of water resources in dry land regions requires information on the likelihood of extreme events,

On the Increased Frequency of Mediterranean Drought

AbstractThe land area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has experienced 10 of the 12 driest winters since 1902 in just the last 20 years. A change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward

Synoptic drivers of 400 years of summer temperature and precipitation variability on Mt. Olympus, Greece

The Mediterranean region has been identified as a global warming hotspot, where future climate impacts are expected to have significant consequences on societal and ecosystem well-being. To put

A tree-ring reconstruction of East Anglian (UK) hydroclimate variability over the last millennium

We present an annually resolved reconstruction of spring-summer precipitation variability in East Anglia, UK (52–53°N, 0–2°E) for the period AD 900–2009. A continuous regional network of 723 living

Long term context for recent drought in northwestern Africa

Anthropogenic climate change is projected to exacerbate midlatitude aridity. Here, we analyze newly developed multi‐century tree‐ring records for a long‐term perspective on drought in Tunisia and