Offspring sex ratio in smokers.


OBJECTIVE To assess the ratio of male to female gender in the offspring of smokers and non-smokers. METHOD The tool used for the survey was a questionnaire. Four hundred subjects were analyzed and were divided into three age groups. RESULTS Out of 400 subjects 56.5% were smokers and 43.5% were nonsmokers. Overall offspring sex ratio in nonsmokers was 1.53 and 0.61 in smokers. CONCLUSION The smoking might be a contributing factor to a lower male to female sex ratio of offspring along with Estrogenic pollutants which are everywhere in the environment contaminating food, drinking water and air.

Cite this paper

@article{Adil2004OffspringSR, title={Offspring sex ratio in smokers.}, author={Malik Muhammad Adil and Umair Ahmed Khan}, journal={JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association}, year={2004}, volume={54 8}, pages={442-3} }