Two problems in defining the germline repertoire of immunoglobulin kappa genes were investigated. One concerns putative transposed V kappa genes (orphons), the other one weak hybridization signals which may or may not turn out to be V kappa genes (UHOs). It was shown by sequencing that the three V kappa genes Z2, Z3 and Z4 are very closely related to the Z1 and V118 genes and to two other genes which had been localized on chromosomes 1 and 22, i.e. outside the kappa locus on chromosome 2. It is therefore likely that also the Z2-Z4 genes are orphons and not part of the kappa locus. Two UHOs turned out not to contain V kappa-like structures. This together with previous results makes it likely that we have detected all germline V kappa genes with the available hybridization probes.