AIM To evaluate the long-term outcomes of Oddi sphincter preserved cholangioplasty with hepatico-subcutaneous stoma (OSPCHS) and risk factors for recurrence in hepatolithiasis. METHODS From March 1993 to December 2012, 202 consecutive patients with hepatolithiasis underwent OSPCHS at our department. The Oddi sphincter preserved procedure consisted of common hepatic duct exploration, stone extraction, hilar bile duct plasty, establishment of subcutaneous stoma to the bile duct. Patients with recurrent stones can undergo stone extraction and/or biliary drainage via the subcutaneous stoma which can be incised under local anesthesia. The long-term results were reviewed. Cox regression model was employed to analyze the risk factors for stone recurrence. RESULTS Ninety-seven (48.0%) OSPCHS patients underwent hepatic resection concomitantly. The rate of surgical complications was 10.4%. There was no perioperative death. The immediate stone clearance rate was 72.8%. Postoperative cholangioscopic lithotomy raised the clearance rate to 97.0%. With a median follow-up period of 78.5 mo (range: 2-233 mo), 24.8% of patients had recurrent stones, 2.5% had late development of cholangiocarcinoma, and the mortality rate was 5.4%. Removal of recurrent stones and/or drainage of inflammatory bile via subcutaneous stoma were conducted in 44 (21.8%) patients. The clearance rate of recurrent stones was 84.0% after subsequent choledochoscopic lithotripsy via subcutaneous stoma. Cox regression analysis showed that residual stone was an independent prognostic factor for stone recurrence. CONCLUSION In selected patients with hepatolithiasis, OSPCHS achieves excellent long-term outcomes, and residual stone is an independent prognostic factor for stone recurrence.