Ochratoxin a: Its Cancer Risk and Potential for Exposure

  title={Ochratoxin a: Its Cancer Risk and Potential for Exposure},
  author={Heather A. Clark and Suzanne M. Snedeker},
  journal={Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B},
  pages={265 - 296}
  • H. Clark, S. Snedeker
  • Published 1 October 2004
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B
Ochratoxin A (OA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin known to contaminate a variety of foods and beverages. The cancer risk posed by OA was reviewed as relevant to human exposure, regulatory activities, and risk management efforts occurring worldwide, particularly in Europe. OA moves through the food chain and has been found in the tissues and organs of animals, including human blood and breast milk. Results from the National Toxicology Program's rodent bioassays show significantly increased… 

Comparative Ochratoxin Toxicity: A Review of the Available Data

This review summarises and evaluates current knowledge about the differential and comparative toxicity of the ochratoxin group and indicates that other ochRatoxins or their metabolites and, in particular, och ratoxin mixtures or combinations with other mycotoxins may represent serious threats to human and animal health.

Analysis of Ochratoxin a Blood Levels in Bladder Cancer Cases and Healthy Persons from Pakistan

The OTA levels found in the Pakistanian cohorts were comparable to those reported previously for the general population in the European Union, and are not likely to play a major role in the etiology of bladder cancer in the Karachi cohort.

Toxicity of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in the light of recent data

Ochratoxin A is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring chlorophenolic mycotoxin produced in contaminated food and feed by fungi of genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity.

Mycotoxins with a Special Focus on Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins and Fumonisins

A review of mycotoxins is presented with special reference to the producing species, analytical methodology, occurrence, biological activity, decontamination, regulations and the risk assessment of aflatoxin, ochratoxins and fumonisins.

Prevention of ochratoxin A contamination of food and ochratoxin A detoxification by microorganisms - a review.

Biological control by microorganisms is studied widely and the objective of this article is to provide an overview of the recent development in the biological control of ochratoxin A contamination.

Ochratoxin A is not detectable in renal and testicular tumours.

  • N. FahmyM. Woo S. Pautler
  • Medicine
    Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • 2014
The OTA levels detected in the serum of patients were highly variable and relatively low, and there was no OTA signal detected by IHC staining in all tested renal and testicular tumours.

Determinants of ochratoxin A exposure--a one year follow-up study of urine levels.

Effects of Single and Repeated Oral Doses of Ochratoxin A on the Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Mouse Kidneys

Ochratoxin-A exposure in CD1, male mice resulted in a significant elevation of OTA levels in blood plasma, and in the renal cortex, the activity of the glutathione-system-related enzymes and certain metabolites of the lipid peroxidation also changed.



Risk assessment of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A.

It is recommended that exposure to OA be kept to a minimum, and further monitoring programs are required to better define the overall residue profile of OA in cereal grains, animal feeds, animal food products, and human blood.

REVIEW Risk Assessment of the Mycotoxin Ochratoxin A

It is recommended that exposure to OA be kept to a minimum, and further monitoring programs are required to better define the overall residue profile of OA in cereal grains, animal feeds, animal food products, and human blood.

Ochratoxin A in food and feed: occurrence, legislation and mode of action.

  • D. Höhler
  • Medicine
    Zeitschrift fur Ernahrungswissenschaft
  • 1998
Generation of free radicals and lipid peroxidation as an important mode of action of OA in vitro and in vivo is discussed in detail, as well as counteracting effects of dietary antioxidants.

Risk assessment and the importance of ochratoxins

External and internal dose in subjects occupationally exposed to ochratoxin A

Airborne exposure levels can result in an increase of OA levels in serum, and this finding suggest that environmental and biological monitoring should be undertaken in workplaces where OA-contaminated products are handled or processed.

How aspartame prevents the toxicity of ochratoxin A.

Aspartame, already used as sweetener has shown a real effectiveness in vivo confirmed largely in vitro, and the molecular mechanism mediating the preventive effect of Aspartame is the delivery of phenylalanine by cleavage of the peptide but also the direct effect of the Peptide on the bending capacity and transport of the toxin in vivo and in vitro.

Ochratoxin A from a toxicological perspective.

Arguments are presented which suggest an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 1.5 ng OTA/kg body weight and a much lower MRL than 5 microgram Ota/kg cereals and cereal products as has been postulated by the EU commission.

A review of recent advances in understanding ochratoxicosis.

Ochratoxin A contamination of cereal food and feed may occur, given appropriate conditions, and implementation of suitable procedures may eliminate or minimize this potentially serious problem.

Are mycotoxins risk factors for endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancers?

Evidence supporting a role of mycotoxin, in particular ochratoxin A and citrinin, in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and associated urinary tract tumours (UTT) is reviewed and a need for prospective studies in which mycotoxins as well as other risk factors should be considered is considered.

Prevention of nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin A, a food contaminant.