Ochratoxin A concentrations in food and feed from a region with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

  title={Ochratoxin A concentrations in food and feed from a region with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy},
  author={Mohamed M. Abouzied and Anelia Horvath and Pavel Podlesny and Natalia Regina and Valery Metodiev and R M Kamenova-Tozeva and Nedialka Niagolova and A D Stein and Evangelos Petropoulos and Varban S Ganev},
  journal={Food Additives \& Contaminants},
  pages={755 - 764}
Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), a chronic renal disease of unknown aetiology, is found in geographically close areas of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Ochratoxin A (OTA), a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus and Penicillium species and a natural contaminant of food and feed, is a putative cause of BEN. Some studies have found a geographic covariation between OTA content in food/feed and BEN manifestation… 
Ochratoxin A in human kidney diseases
Although OTA was found more frequently and/or in higher concentration in food and blood of inhabitants in regions with BEN than in other regions, the involvement of OTA in the development of BEN is still open.
Determination of Ochratoxin A in sorghum in Khartoum, Gadaref and Kordofan states in Sudan.
The results showed that 5 out of 30 (16.7%) of the sorghum samples were contaminated by ochratoxin A at concentration ranging between 0.4 and 0.6 μg kg -1 with recovery 98% at spiking level 2 μgkg -1 and with detection limit (LOD).
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Dietary intake studies have confirmed link between endemic nephrotoxicity in humans to their daily household intake of OTA, and recent studies however have warned that OTA and other toxins, such as aristolochic acid, show very similar renal pathology.
Cereals are the substrates most exposed to micromycete attack. The development of moulds determines changes of the physical properties (aspect, taste, smell) and of the chemical properties as well
Incidence of ochratoxin A in dried fruits and co-occurrence with aflatoxins in dried figs.
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The use of oat genotypes with limited OTA accumulation would be an effective way to reduce risks of OTA contamination in oat based products.
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The cancer risk posed by OA was reviewed as relevant to human exposure, regulatory activities, and risk management efforts occurring worldwide, particularly in Europe.


Ochratoxin A contamination of cereals in an area of high incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Bulgaria.
In an effort to provide further evidence for the hypothesis that a mycotoxin is involved in the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and that the latter is associated with the occurrence of
Ochratoxin A and other mycotoxins in cereals from an area of Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Bulgaria.
Ochratoxin A was found in samples from both endemic and nonendemic areas, but more of the samples from affected families were contaminated, and at higher levels, than those from unaffected households.
Co-occurrence of ochratoxin A and citrinin in cereals from Bulgarian villages with a history of Balkan endemic nephropathy.
Cereal samples were collected in 1998 from Bulgarian villages without or with a history of Balkan endemic nephropathy and highest concentrations of ochratoxin and citrinin were found in samples from endemic villages.
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Generation of free radicals and lipid peroxidation as an important mode of action of OA in vitro and in vivo is discussed in detail, as well as counteracting effects of dietary antioxidants.
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Relative risk calculations indicated a tendency to an association between this mycotoxin and Balkan (endemic) nephropathy, supporting the hypothesis of a causal role of ochratoxin A in this disease.
Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Bulgaria.
Ochratoxin A was found more frequently and at higher levels in blood from patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy and/or urinary tract tumours than inBlood from unaffected people from endemic and control areas, suggesting further that ochrat toxin A is involved in the etiology of the two diseases.
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Irrespective of the real association between ochratoxin A and endemic nephropathy, the data clearly demonstrate their geographical overlap.
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Results emphasise that in Tunisia an endemic ochratoxin-related nephropathy is probably occurring, as has been previously reported in the Balkans and Western Europe.
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The involvement of oxidative metabolism in the genotoxicity of OTA led us to investigate the effect of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) which is known to cooxidase xenobiotics and confirmed that OTA is activated to genotoxic metabolites by cooxydation by the prostag landin synthase route.
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