Ochratoxin A: The Continuing Enigma

  title={Ochratoxin A: The Continuing Enigma},
  author={Evelyn O'brien and Daniel R. Dietrich},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  pages={33 - 60}
Abstract The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) has been linked to the genesis of several disease states in both animals and humans. It has been described as nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic in laboratory and domestic animals, as well as being thought to be the probable causal agent in the development of nephropathies (Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, BEN and Chronic Interstitial Nephropathy, CIN) and urothelial tumors in humans. As a result, several international… 
A toxicogenomics approach to identify new plausible epigenetic mechanisms of ochratoxin a carcinogenicity in rat.
The inhibition of defense mechanism appears as a highly plausible new mechanism, which could contribute to OTA carcinogenicity, in rats fed OTA for up to 2 years.
Ochratoxin A: Toxicity, oxidative stress and metabolism.
  • Y. TaoShuyu Xie Zonghui Yuan
  • Biology
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2018
The effects of ochratoxin A on liver metabolism
Experiments on human liver cells support the hypothesis of an inflammatory effect of OTA mediated by TNF-α and an up-regulation of apoptosis has been detected in hepatic cells after OTA treatment, which leads to a higher rate of cell death and to a reduction of liver activity.
Ochratoxin A kinetics: a review of analytical methods and studies in rat model.
Ochratoxin A in avicultural meat production: chemical and histological effects
The effects and the dynamics of accumulation of ochratoxin A in the organs and tissues after prolonged exposure (40 days) in broilers through their productive cycle are evaluated and severe alterations in the hepatic and renal tissues are revealed only in animals fed with high dosages.
Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Modulation by Antioxidants: A Review
These studies demonstrated that antioxidants are able to counteract the deleterious effects of chronic consumption or exposure to OTA and confirmed the potential effectiveness of dietary strategies to counteract OTA toxicity.
Toxicity of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in the light of recent data
Ochratoxin A is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring chlorophenolic mycotoxin produced in contaminated food and feed by fungi of genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity.
Ochratoxin A induces oxidative DNA damage in liver and kidney after oral dosing to rats.
The oxidative DNA damage induced by OTA may help to explain its mechanism of carcinogenicity and for the selective induction of tumors in the kidney, increased oxidative stress in connection with severe cytotoxicity and increased cell proliferation might represent driving factors.
Ochratoxin A carcinogenicity involves a complex network of epigenetic mechanisms.


Ochratoxin A in blood and its pharmacokinetic properties.
  • R. FuchsK. Hult
  • Biology
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 1992
Ochratoxin A.
  • F. Jonsyn-Ellis
  • Medicine
    IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans
  • 1983
Evidence of the widespread ingestion of this toxin, as has been determined in body fluids of peoples in North Africa and even in young children in Sierra Leone is shown to show evidence of the levels of OTA contamination in foods and feeds from tropical Africa.
Apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by ochratoxin A in rat kidney
It is shown that the exposure to the relatively low OTA concentrations has activated apoptotic processes and oxidative damage in kidney cells, and a combination of morphologic and biochemical markers can be used to monitor early cell death in OTA-induced renal injury.
Ochratoxin A: an important western Canadian storage mycotoxin.
Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of storage fungi of the Penicillium and Aspergillus genera and has a particular high affinity for serum albumin.
Ochratoxin a and human chronic nephropathy in Tunisia: is the situation endemic?
It is important to note that the highest levels of food OTA contamination were found in the group presenting with CIN of unknown cause, indicating that, similar to the case in the Balkans, people are exposed to OTA essentially by their food.
Species-, sex-, and cell type-specific effects of ochratoxin A and B.
The results presented here support the continued use of primary renal epithelial cells for the investigation of the mechanism of OTA-induced carcinogenesis and nephropathy and provide an as-yet preliminary data set that supports the existence of a causal relationship between OTA exposure and human nephroblasts.
Effects of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in a bacterial and a mammalian in vitro mutagenicity test system
The present results imply that OTA does not act as direct mutagen, and the OTA metabolites derived from cultured rat hepatocytes or rat liver S9 mix, also, do not have a mutagenic potency in the test systems used.
Risk assessment of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A.
It is recommended that exposure to OA be kept to a minimum, and further monitoring programs are required to better define the overall residue profile of OA in cereal grains, animal feeds, animal food products, and human blood.
A new approach to studying ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced nephrotoxicity: expression profiling in vivo and in vitro employing cDNA microarrays.
DNA microarray analyses provide a molecular basis for interpretation of OTA-induced nephrotoxicity and demonstrate that microarray data derived from the proximal tubule cell (PTC) culture model were highly comparable to the in vivo situation.