Oceans in the past history of Mars: Tests for their presence using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data

@article{Head1998OceansIT,
  title={Oceans in the past history of Mars: Tests for their presence using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data},
  author={James W. Head and Mikhail A. Kreslavsky and Harald Hiesinger and Mikhail A. Ivanov and Stephen F. Pratt and N. M. Seibert and David E. Smith and Maria T. Zuber},
  journal={Geophysical Research Letters},
  year={1998},
  volume={25}
}
An ancient north polar ocean on Mars has been proposed [Parker et al., 1989] and we use MOLA data to test the hypothesis. Of the two proposed contacts/shorelines, the younger Contact 2 shows the closest approximation to an equipotential surface; vertical variations along this surface occur in areas with post‐contact‐formation geological activity or suspected changes in the position of an equipotential surface (e.g., Tharsis) with time. The surface of Mars is smoother at all scales below Contact… 

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Data obtained recently by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) were used to study the statistical properties of the topography and slopes on Mars. We find that the hemispheric dichotomy,

Evidence for an ancient martian ocean in the topography of deformed shorelines

TLDR
It is shown that the long-wavelength topography of the shorelines is consistent with deformation caused bytrue polar wander—a change in the orientation of a planet with respect to its rotation pole—and that the inferred pole path has the geometry expected for a true polar wander event that postdates the formation of the massive Tharsis volcanic rise.
...

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