Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate

  title={Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate},
  author={Robert J. Charlson and James E. Lovelock and Meinrat O. Andreae and Stephen G. Warren},
The major source of cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN) over the oceans appears to be dimethylsulphide, which is produced by planktonic algae in sea water and oxidizes in the atmosphere to form a sulphate aerosol Because the reflectance (albedo) of clouds (and thus the Earth's radiation budget) is sensitive to CCN density, biological regulation of the climate is possible through the effects of temperature and sunlight on phytoplankton population and dimethylsulphide production. To counteract the… Expand
Solar variability, dimethyl sulphide, clouds, and climate
[1] It is proposed that Earth's climate may be modulated, in part, by changes in the flux of ultraviolet/blue light into the oceans. This occurs, at a range of timescales, through solar variabilityExpand
Are global cloud albedo and climate controlled by marine phytoplankton?
The recent suggestion that dimethylsulphide emissions by marine phytoplankton control global albedo and mean temperature would also imply a strong climatic influence of man-made SO2. AnthropogenicExpand
Evidence for the climatic role of marine biogenic sulphur
Oceanic dimethylsulphide (DMS) emissions and atmospheric aerosol particle populations (condensation nuclei, CN), resolved by latitude and season, appear to be directly correlated, in that CN, asExpand
Climate sensitivity to ocean dimethylsulphide emissions
The production of dimethylsulphide (DMS) by ocean phytoplankton is hypothesized to form part of a feedback process on global climate. Changes in the DMS flux to the atmosphere cause changes toExpand
Coherence between seasonal cycles of dimethyl sulphide, methanesulphonate and sulphate in marine air
THEeffect of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in controlling cloud albedo and hence global climate has prompted questions about the factors that control CCN populations. Charlson et al.1 suggestedExpand
Ocean biogeochemistry: Sulphur in the mix
The precursor of the gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) is produced by phytoplankton. Oceanic emissions of this compound put sulphur into the atmosphere, where it is thought to exert a cooling effect onExpand
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are predominantly sulfate particles, and over the oceans the major source of sulfur for these particles appears to be dimethyl sulfide, a gas produced by marine biota.Expand
Dimethylsulfide production variations over the past 200 k.y. in the equatorial Atlantic: A first estimate
Dimethylsulfide (DMS) released from phytoplankton produces cloud condensation nuclei in the marine troposphere, thereby providing a climate-regulating mechanism by increasing cloud albedo. AExpand
Aerosol Nitrate and Non-Sea-Salt Sulfate Over the Eastern Mediterranean
Among the biogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, reduced sulfur gases such as DMS constitute and control a significant fraction of the atmospheric nss-sulfate budget (Charlson et al., 1987, e.g.).Expand
Marine Aerosols and Clouds.
Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models. Expand


Vertical distribution of dimethylsulphide in the marine atmosphere
Dimethylsulphide (DMS) is excreted into sea water by marine phytoplankton and then transferred across the air/sea interface into the atmospheric boundary layer1–5. This process represents aboutExpand
Origin of Aitken particles in remote regions of the Southern Hemisphere
Seasonal variations in total particle concentrations at five remote Southern Hemisphere sites in Samoa, Tasmania and Antarctica are compared. The dominant particle production mechanism is deduced toExpand
Cloud optical thickness feedbacks in the CO2 climate problem
A radiative-convective equilibrium model is developed and applied to study cloud optical thickness feedbacks in the CO2 climate problem. The basic hypothesis is that in the warmer and moisterExpand
The Ocean as a Source of Atmospheric Sulfur Compounds
The impact of human activity on the global atmospheric sulfur cycle is easily seen in densely inhabited, industrialized regions: the degradation of visibility by haze, the acidity of atmosphericExpand
The Composition of Cloud Nuclei
Abstract Natural cloud nuclei in both maritime and continental air masses in southeastern Australia (Robertson, N.S.W.) show a high volatility when heated. Few natural nuclei withstand the highExpand
Dimethyl sulfide in the marine atmosphere
We have performed over 900 measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in five different marine locations: the equatorial Pacific; Cape Grim, Tasmania; the Bahamas; the North Atlantic; and theExpand
Simultaneous airborne measurements of cloud condensation nuclei and sodium‐containing particles over the ocean
Simultaneous airborne measurements have been made over the Pacific Ocean of the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) active at 0.5 per cent supersaturation and the concentrations andExpand
Reduced sulfur emission from the open oceans
The reduced sulfur compounds H2S and CH3SCH3 have been included in a diurnal kinetic photochemical model of the natural marine atmosphere. The self-consistent solution provides the oceanic emissionExpand
The ocean's response to a CO2-induced warming
The climate response to a large increase in atmospheric CO2 was investigated in a numerical experiment with a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The study is focused on one aspect of the experiment, theExpand
Measurements of various sulphur gases in a coastal marine environment
Measurements of several sulphur gases have been made in coastal seawaters (including microlayers) and marine air off Great Yarmouth, U.K., and in a freshwater lake. The results show dimethyl sulphideExpand