Ocean acidification and the Permo-Triassic mass extinction

  title={Ocean acidification and the Permo-Triassic mass extinction},
  author={Matthew O Clarkson and Simone A. Kasemann and Rachel Wood and Timothy M. Lenton and Stuart J. Daines and Sylvain Richoz and Frank Ohnemueller and A. J. Meixner and Simon W. Poulton and Edward T. Tipper},
  pages={229 - 232}
Ocean acidification and mass extinction The largest mass extinction in Earth's history occurred at the Permian-Triassic boundary 252 million years ago. Several ideas have been proposed for what devastated marine life, but scant direct evidence exists. Clarkson et al. measured boron isotopes across this period as a highly sensitive proxy for seawater pH. It appears that, although the oceans buffered the acidifiying effects of carbon release from contemporary pulses of volcanism, buffering failed… 
Permian–Triassic mass extinction pulses driven by major marine carbon cycle perturbations
The Permian/Triassic boundary approximately 251.9 million years ago marked the most severe environmental crisis identified in the geological record, which dictated the onwards course for the
Bioindicators of severe ocean acidification are absent from the end-Permian mass extinction
The role of ocean acidification in the end-Permian mass extinction is highly controversial with conflicting hypotheses relating to its timing and extent. Observations and experiments on living
Massive and rapid predominantly volcanic CO2 emission during the end-Permian mass extinction
Estimating the CO2 emission in an Earth system model based on new compound-specific carbon isotope records from the Finnmark Platform and an astronomically tuned age model finds that carbon emission pulses are accompanied by organic carbon burial, facilitated by widespread ocean anoxia, suggesting that the massive amount of greenhouse gases may have pushed the Earth system toward a critical tipping point.
Environmental crises at the Permian–Triassic mass extinction
The link between the Permian–Triassic mass extinction (252 million years ago) and the emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (STLIP) was first proposed in the 1990s. However, the
Global perturbation of the marine calcium cycle during the Permian-Triassic transition
A negative shift in the calcium isotopic composition of marine carbonate rocks spanning the end-Permian extinction horizon in South China has been used to argue for an ocean acidification event
End-Permian marine extinction due to temperature-driven nutrient recycling and euxinia
Extreme warming at the end-Permian induced profound changes in marine biogeochemical cycling and animal habitability, leading to the largest metazoan extinction in Earth’s history. However, a causal
Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth's greatest mass extinction
Constraining the evolution of Neogene ocean carbonate chemistry using the boron isotope pH proxy
Permo–Triassic boundary carbon and mercury cycling linked to terrestrial ecosystem collapse
A new biogeochemical model is built that couples the global Hg and C cycles to evaluate the distinct terrestrial contribution to atmosphere–ocean biogeochemistry separated from coeval volcanic fluxes, and shows that a massive collapse of terrestrial ecosystems linked to volcanism-driven environmental change triggered significantBiogeochemical changes, and cascaded organic matter, nutrients, HG and other organically-bound species into the marine system.


The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
The geological record contains long-term evidence for a variety of global environmental perturbations, including ocean acidification plus their associated biotic responses, over the past ~300 million years of Earth’s history.
Major perturbation of ocean chemistry and a ‘Strangelove Ocean’ after the end‐Permian mass extinction
The severe mass extinction of marine and terrestrial organisms at the end of the Permian Period (c. 251 Ma) was accompanied by a rapid (<100 000 years and possibly <10 000 years) negative excursion
Calcium isotope constraints on the end-Permian mass extinction
The results point toward Siberian Trap volcanism as the trigger of mass extinction as well as CO2-driven ocean acidification best explains the coincidence of the δ44/40Ca excursion with negative excursions in theδ13C of carbonates and organic matter and the preferential extinction of heavily calcified marine animals.
Simulating Permian–Triassic oceanic anoxia distribution: Implications for species extinction and recovery
The biggest mass extinction in the Phanerozoic, at the end of the Permian, has been associ- ated with oceanic changes, but the exact dynamics are still debated. Intensifi ed stratifi cation,
Examination of hypotheses for the Permo–Triassic boundary extinction by carbon cycle modeling
  • R. Berner
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
Modeling indicates that measured short-term changes in δ13C at the boundary are best explained by methane release with mass mortality and volcanic degassing contributing in secondary roles, which results in excessively high levels of atmospheric CO2 if they occurred on time scales of more than about 1,000 years.
Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian-Triassic mass extinction
High-resolution oxygen isotope records document the timing and magnitude of global warming across the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary. Oxygen isotope ratios measured on phosphate-bound oxygen in
Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown