Ocean acidification and the Permo-Triassic mass extinction

  title={Ocean acidification and the Permo-Triassic mass extinction},
  author={Matthew O Clarkson and Simone A. Kasemann and Rachel Wood and Timothy M. Lenton and Stuart J. Daines and Sylvain Richoz and Frank Ohnemueller and A. J. Meixner and Simon W. Poulton and Edward T. Tipper},
  pages={229 - 232}
Ocean acidification and mass extinction The largest mass extinction in Earth's history occurred at the Permian-Triassic boundary 252 million years ago. Several ideas have been proposed for what devastated marine life, but scant direct evidence exists. Clarkson et al. measured boron isotopes across this period as a highly sensitive proxy for seawater pH. It appears that, although the oceans buffered the acidifiying effects of carbon release from contemporary pulses of volcanism, buffering failed… Expand
Permian–Triassic mass extinction pulses driven by major marine carbon cycle perturbations
The Permian/Triassic boundary approximately 251.9 million years ago marked the most severe environmental crisis identified in the geological record, which dictated the onwards course for theExpand
Global perturbation of the marine calcium cycle during the Permian-Triassic transition
A negative shift in the calcium isotopic composition of marine carbonate rocks spanning the end-Permian extinction horizon in South China has been used to argue for an ocean acidification eventExpand
Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth's greatest mass extinction
The cause for the end Permian mass extinction, the greatest challenge life on Earth faced in its geologic history, is still hotly debated by scientists. The most significant marker of this event isExpand
Constraining the evolution of Neogene ocean carbonate chemistry using the boron isotope pH proxy
Abstract Over the course of the Neogene, the Earth underwent profound climatic shifts from the sustained warmth of the middle Miocene to the development of Plio-Pleistocene glacial–interglacialExpand
Permo–Triassic boundary carbon and mercury cycling linked to terrestrial ecosystem collapse
A new biogeochemical model is built that couples the global Hg and C cycles to evaluate the distinct terrestrial contribution to atmosphere–ocean biogeochemistry separated from coeval volcanic fluxes, and shows that a massive collapse of terrestrial ecosystems linked to volcanism-driven environmental change triggered significantBiogeochemical changes, and cascaded organic matter, nutrients, HG and other organically-bound species into the marine system. Expand
Mercury enrichments provide evidence of Early Triassic volcanism following the end-Permian mass extinction
Abstract Oceanic environments and biotas were in a state of near-continuous perturbation during the Early Triassic, the ~5-million-year interval following the latest Permian mass extinction (LPME),Expand
Uranium isotopes in marine carbonates as a global ocean paleoredox proxy: A critical review
Abstract The protracted oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system is one of the most fundamental changes to the Earth system through its history. The uranium isotopic composition (238U/235U, denotedExpand
Transition into a Hothouse World at the Permian–Triassic boundary—A model study
Abstract The Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB, ~ 252.3 Ma) marks the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic, with a loss of more than 90% of marine organisms, and is characterized by lethally hotExpand
Oceanic redox evolution around the end-Permian mass extinction at Meishan, South China
Abstract The end-Permian marine extinction (EPME) eliminated >80% of species globally, making it the most severe extinction of the Phanerozoic. Anoxia and euxinia are potential kill mechanisms thatExpand
Mercury anomalies across the end Permian mass extinction in South China from shallow and deep water depositional environments
Abstract Life on Earth suffered its greatest bio-crisis since multicellular organisms rose 600 million years ago during the end-Permian mass extinction. Coincidence of the mass extinction with floodExpand


The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
The geological record contains long-term evidence for a variety of global environmental perturbations, including ocean acidification plus their associated biotic responses, over the past ~300 million years of Earth’s history. Expand
Calcium isotope constraints on the end-Permian mass extinction
The results point toward Siberian Trap volcanism as the trigger of mass extinction as well as CO2-driven ocean acidification best explains the coincidence of the δ44/40Ca excursion with negative excursions in theδ13C of carbonates and organic matter and the preferential extinction of heavily calcified marine animals. Expand
Simulating Permian–Triassic oceanic anoxia distribution: Implications for species extinction and recovery
The biggest mass extinction in the Phanerozoic, at the end of the Permian, has been associ- ated with oceanic changes, but the exact dynamics are still debated. Intensifi ed stratifi cation,Expand
Initial assessment of the carbon emission rate and climatic consequences during the end-Permian mass extinction
Numerous lines of geochemical and stable isotopic evidence indicate that the end-Permian mass extinction was accompanied by abrupt climate change induced by CO2 addition. Catastrophic end-PermianExpand
δ13C evidence that high primary productivity delayed recovery from end-Permian mass extinction
Euxinia was widespread during and after the end-Permian mass extinction and is commonly cited as an explanation for delayed biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. This anoxic, sulfidic episodeExpand
Examination of hypotheses for the Permo–Triassic boundary extinction by carbon cycle modeling
  • R. Berner
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
Modeling indicates that measured short-term changes in δ13C at the boundary are best explained by methane release with mass mortality and volcanic degassing contributing in secondary roles, which results in excessively high levels of atmospheric CO2 if they occurred on time scales of more than about 1,000 years. Expand
Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian-Triassic mass extinction
High-resolution oxygen isotope records document the timing and magnitude of global warming across the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary. Oxygen isotope ratios measured on phosphate-bound oxygen inExpand
Global warming and the end-Permian extinction event: Proxy and modeling perspectives
Abstract The mass extinction event that occurred at the close of the Permian Period (~ 252 million years ago) represents the most severe biodiversity loss in the ocean of the Phanerozoic. The linksExpand
Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown
Abstract The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-PermianExpand
Isotopic evidence for an anomalously low oceanic sulfate concentration following end-Permian mass extinction
Abstract The cataclysmic end-Permian mass extinction was immediately followed by a global expansion of microbial ecosystems, as demonstrated by widespread microbialite sequences (disaster facies) inExpand