Occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients receiving acute and chronic infusions of milrinone.

Abstract

Milrinone is a promising new inotrope, but its arrhythmogenic potential has not been defined. We monitored ventricular arrhythmias during a 24-hour baseline and 48-hour milrinone infusion period in 12 patients with chronic heart failure. Patients were characterized by a mean age of 58 years and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 21%. Nine (75%) were male, nine had primary idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and three had coronary artery disease. None had a history of cardiac arrest or sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Milrinone was given as a loading dose (mean 53 micrograms/kg/10 min; range 37.5 to 75) followed by a 48-hour maintenance infusion (mean 0.53 micrograms/kg/min; range 0.25 to 0.75). Acutely, cardiac index increased by 27% and pulmonary wedge pressure decreased by 30% during milrinone; changes were maintained during continued therapy. Ventricular arrhythmia response was variable, with no significant overall difference. However, a trend toward increased ectopic activity was noted. No sustained tachyarrhythmias occurred. Mean frequency of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) was 87 +/- 48 PVCs/hr (x +/- SEM) during baseline monitoring and 141 +/- 69/hr following infusion of the drug (p = 0.08). Mean frequency of couplets was 6.0 +/- 4.9/hr before drug infusion and 14.3 +/- 11.0/hr during infusion (p = 0.21). Mean frequency of runs was 0.9 +/- 0.8/hr before and 2.7 +/- 2.4/hr during drug infusion (p = 0.29). Two patients met criteria for proarrhythmia (increased PVCs of greater than 4x and/or repetitive forms of greater than 10x. However, neither proarrhythmia patient required reduction in the dosage of milrinone or additional antiarrhythmic therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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@article{Anderson1986OccurrenceOV, title={Occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients receiving acute and chronic infusions of milrinone.}, author={J L Anderson and J C Askins and E M Gilbert and R L Menlove and J R Lutz}, journal={American heart journal}, year={1986}, volume={111 3}, pages={466-74} }