Occurrence of alternative flame retardants in indoor dust from New Zealand: indoor sources and human exposure assessment.

@article{Ali2012OccurrenceOA,
  title={Occurrence of alternative flame retardants in indoor dust from New Zealand: indoor sources and human exposure assessment.},
  author={Nadeem Ali and Alin Constantin Dirtu and Nele Van den Eede and Emma Goosey and Stuart Harrad and Hugo M. Neels and Andrea ’t Mannetje and Jonathan Coakley and Jeroen Douwes and Adrian Covaci},
  journal={Chemosphere},
  year={2012},
  volume={88 11},
  pages={
          1276-82
        }
}
Due to worldwide restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the demand for alternative flame retardants (AFRs), such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), novel brominated FRs (NBFRs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), has recently increased. Little is known about human exposure to NBFRs and OPFRs and that their levels in dust have been scarcely evaluated worldwide. To increase the knowledge regarding these chemicals, we measured concentrations of five major NBFRs, ten… 
Occurrence and human exposure to brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants via indoor dust in a Brazilian city.
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The results obtained showed for the first time that although Brazil does not regulate the use of FRs, these substances are present in indoor dust at levels similar to the observed in countries that have strict fire safety standards, and that humans are exposed to complex mixtures of these contaminants via indoor dust.
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Legacy and alternative brominated, chlorinated, and organophosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust—levels, composition profiles, and human exposure in Latvia
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The levels and patterns observed in dust samples from Latvia were similar to those reported from Central Europe and the calculated exposure to most of the FRs was several orders of magnitude lower than the available reference dose (RfD) values.
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For toddlers, assuming high dust intake and 95th percentile concentrations, the computed exposure estimation for BDE-99 was higher than RfD values, which reflected their wider application as FR and plasticizer in variety of household and commercial products.
Organophosphate flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor dust and gas-phase of Alexandria, Egypt.
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Despite the high uncertainty in dust - air partitioning coefficients, log transformed values showed significant linear relationships with log octanol - air-partitioning coefficients in all microenvironments, indicating an equilibrium partitioning between dust and vapor.
Occurrence and human exposure assessment of organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust from various microenvironments of the Rhine/Main region, Germany
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Comparison of results with previous studies indicates a significant global variation in OPFR concentrations and their profiles, reflecting distinct fire safety regulations in different countries and/or different sampling strategies.
Occurrence of a broad range of legacy and emerging flame retardants in indoor environments in Norway.
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The main findings were that frequent vacuum cleaning resulted in lower FR concentrations in dust and that dermal contact with dust was as important for the intake of organophosphate FRs as dust ingestion.
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