Occurrence of Trichosirocalus horridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Native Cirsium altissimum Versus Exotic C. vulgare in North American Tallgrass Prairie

  title={Occurrence of Trichosirocalus horridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Native Cirsium altissimum Versus Exotic C. vulgare in North American Tallgrass Prairie},
  author={Masaru Takahashi and Svaťa M. Louda and Tom E. X. Miller and Charles W. O'brien†},
  booktitle={Environmental entomology},
ABSTRACT Postrelease studies can provide data with which to evaluate expectations based on prerelease tests of biological control insects. In 2004, we observed Trichosirocalus horridus Panzer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rosette weevil introduced into North America against Eurasian thistles, feeding on native tall thistle, Cirsium altissimum L. Spreng., in tallgrass prairie. In this study, we examined the rosette weevil's use of tall thistle, compared with its use of the co-occurring… 

First documentation of adult Trichosirocalus horridus on several non-target native Cirsium species in Tennessee

The impact of feeding by larvae of T. horridus on the reproductive potential of native plants is uncertain, because even in the target species (musk thistle and other introduced Cirsium species) plant death only sometimes occurs, and seed production continues.

Genetic and morphological studies of Trichosirocalus species introduced to North America, Australia and New Zealand for the biological control of thistles.

Molecular evidence, morphological analysis and host plant associations support the synonymy of T. horridus (Panzer, 1801) and T. briesei (Alonso-Zarazaga & Sánchez-Ruiz, 2002), which is determined to have been established in Canada, USA, New Zealand and Australia and to be established in Australia.

Spatial Prediction of Habitat Overlap of Introduced and Native Thistles to Identify Potential Areas of Nontarget Activity of Biological Control Agents

Data-based habitat models may provide a powerful tool for land managers and scientists to monitor native plant populations for nontarget feeding by introduced biological control agents and identify site conditions that contribute to the presence of the respective species.

Native insect herbivory limits population growth rate of a non-native thistle

Results provide strong support for the hypothesis that indigenous herbivores limit population invasion of this non-native plant species into otherwise suitable grassland habitat.

No interaction between competition and herbivory in limiting introduced Cirsium vulgare rosette growth and reproduction

The results of this study provide additional, experimental evidence that high levels of herbivory on established rosettes by native insects exert significant biotic resistance to the invasiveness of C. vulgare in western tallgrass prairie.

Nontarget herbivory by a weed biocontrol insect is limited to spillover, reducing the chance of population-level impacts

It is infer, through ecological refuge theory, that nontarget population-level impacts from M. crucifer spillover are unlikely because of temporal, spatial, and probabilistic refuges from herbivory, and make recommendations for monitoring and management of biocontrol systems with similar attributes, such as removing target plants around nontarget populations of interest.

Effects of apical meristem mining on plant fitness, architecture, and flowering phenology in Cirsium altissimum (Asteraceae).

Interactions that limit lifetime seed production have the potential to limit plant population sizes and drive adaptation through natural selection and apical meristem mining reduced plant maternal fitness.

A proposal to use plant demographic data to assess potential weed biological control agents impacts on non-target plant populations

The proposed approach to focus on impact on plant demography instead of attack on plant individuals is useful in appropriately gauging threats potential weed biocontrol agents may pose to non-target species after field release.

What Magnitude Are Observed Non-Target Impacts from Weed Biocontrol?

A systematic review focused by plant on non-target impacts from agents deliberately introduced for the biological control of weeds found significant non- target impacts to be rare and recommended a simple five-step scale be used to better communicate the risk of consequences from both action and no action.



Population Growth of Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Two Species of Native Thistles in Prairie

The results suggest that inclusion of ecological characteristics, such as phenol­ ogy, in prerelease studies and completion of long-term, follow-up studies on releases would improve the understanding and evaluation of risk to native species from potential biological control agents.


Following the establishment of Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer), a rosette feeding weevil which was initially released in Southwest Virginia from 1974 to 1977 for the biocontrol of thistle, a study of its dispersal was conducted from 1981 to 1985.

Unexpected Ecological Effects of Distributing the Exotic Weevil, Larinus planus (F.), for the Biological Control of Canada Thistle

The high-frequency and high-level feeding of L. planus on the native species, coupled with the lack of evidence of its effectively limiting the seed production or density of Canada thistle suggest that the deliberate distribution of this weevil should be discontinued.

Host specificity studies on Ceuthorhynchidius horridus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for the biocontrol of musk and plumeless thistle

Host specificity studies on Ceuthorhynchidius horridus (Panzer), a weevil which attacks thistles at the rosette stage, revealed that the larvae of this insect were able to complete development in musk thistle, plumeless thistle and bull thistle; but not in two closely related economic species, artichoke and safflower.

Nontarget feeding of leaf-beetles introduced to control purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.)

It is anticipated that occasional spillover with transient attack on nontarget species may occur at other release sites with high population densities of the Galerucella species, and careful monitoring is the best means to determine long-term impact.

Interference of bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) with growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings in a forest plantation.

Although it remains unclear how thistles suppressed pine seedling growth, if these results hold true at other sites, plantation managers will have at their disposal relatively easy methods for assessing thistle interference.

Host Specificity of the First-Instar of Ceuthorhynchidius horridus a Weevil for Biological Control of Thistles

Feeding tests of the 1st instar of Ceuthorhynchidius horridus (Panzer) revealed that the larvae survived and developed on a narrow range of plant species within the tribes Cynareae and Cichorieae of the family Compositae.

Evaluation of ecological risk to populations of a threatened plant from an invasive biocontrol insect

The results indicate that the weevil poses a serious quantitative, demographic risk to the threatened C. pitcheri and supports the suggestion that ecological data can be used to improve the quantification of risk to native nontarget plant populations within the potential physiological host range of a biological control insect.

Variation in herbivore-mediated indirect effects of an invasive plant on a native plant.

It is concluded that both preferred-plant proximity and shared herbivore density strongly affected the Herbivore-mediated indirect interaction, suggesting that such interactions are important pathways by which invasive exotic weeds can indirectly impact native plants.