Occurrence and removal of titanium at full scale wastewater treatment plants: implications for TiO2 nanomaterials.

@article{Westerhoff2011OccurrenceAR,
  title={Occurrence and removal of titanium at full scale wastewater treatment plants: implications for TiO2 nanomaterials.},
  author={Paul Westerhoff and Guixue Song and Kiril D Hristovski and Mehlika A Kiser},
  journal={Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM},
  year={2011},
  volume={13 5},
  pages={1195-203}
}
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increasingly will be used in commercial products and have a high likelihood of entering municipal sewage that flows to centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Treated water (effluent) from WWTPs flows into rivers and lakes where nanoparticles may pose an ecological risk. To provide exposure data for risk assessment, titanium concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluent were determined for 10 representative WWTPs that use a range of unit processes… CONTINUE READING

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