1. The occurrence and gel electrophoretic properties of low molecular weight RNA components (LMW RNA) have been studied in species at different taxonomic levels. The LMW RNA components apart from tRNA, 5S RNA and 5.5S RNA are called LMW*RNA. 2. The major components of LMW*RNA in mammalian cells are L, A, C and D, accounting for 0.1-0.7% of cellular RNA. The gel electrophoretic migration of components L, C, and D is similar in different mammals but the migration of component A shows differences. 3. Amphibia, reptiles and birds contain L, A, C and D in about the same amounts as mammals but slight differences in migration are seen for L, C and D. Component A is absent from the nucleated red blood cells of the chicken and the frog. 4. Sea urchins contain three LMW*RNA components with migrations different from L, A, C and D. These components account for about 0.1% of the cellular RNA. 5. Insects contain only one LMW*RNA component, migrating as component L. 6. Tetrahymena, Physarum and Mycoplasmas have one component which may be a counterpart to component L in higher cells. Yeast shows no LMW*RNA components. 7. In the multicellular species the occurrence and gel electrophoretic migration of LMW*RNA components are not related to tumorigenicity, developmental stage or origin of tissue.