Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium causing foodborne disease. Occurrence of the bacterium was investigated in six species of edible crustaceans available from markets in mainland China. The bacterium was detected in 22 of 45 whole-body, shell, and feces samples, including mitten crabs, which are supposed to be produced in freshwater ponds. The mean densities ranged from 2.8 log CFU/g in mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) to 5.1 CFU/g in giant tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon). In hemolymph and muscle samples collected axenically, V. parahaemolyticus was detected in all of the prawns at a mean density of 2.6 log most probable number (MPN)/g, in two of five striped stone crabs (Charybdis feriatus) at a mean density of 1.1 log MPN/ml, and two of five mangrove mud crabs (Scylla serrata) at a mean density of 1.3 log MPN/ml. When six mitten crabs were collected from two freshwater ponds in China and were examined, V. parahaemolyticus was not detected. It seemed that cross-contamination occurred among live crustaceans at the markets. The results suggest that proper handling, storage, and cooking of these crustaceans will be necessary to lessen the risk of foodborne illness from V. parahaemolyticus.