Occurrence and Distribution of Naegleria Species in Thermal Waters in Japan

@inproceedings{Izumiyama2003OccurrenceAD,
  title={Occurrence and Distribution of Naegleria Species in Thermal Waters in Japan},
  author={Shinji Izumiyama and Kenji Yagita and Reiko Furushima-Shimogawara and Tokiko Asakura and Tatsuya Karasudani and Takuro Endo},
  booktitle={The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology},
  year={2003}
}
The free-living amoebae, possible aetiological agents of amoebic encephalitis, appear to be ubiquitous in a variety of thermal waters. In the name of modernization in our lifestyle and systems, we are tolerant toward using large amounts of water in our daily life not only for drinking, household purposes or hygiene but also for public ornaments such as fountains in shopping malls. This eventually brings a variety of water facilities into our environment, such as cooling water, whirlpool bath… 
Swimming with death: Naegleria fowleri infections in recreational waters.
  • T. Heggie
  • Medicine
    Travel medicine and infectious disease
  • 2010
Pathogenic waterborne free-living amoebae: An update from selected Southeast Asian countries
TLDR
It is suggested that poor water quality as well as inadequate maintenance and treatment might be the cause of this alarming problem since chlorine disinfection is ineffective in eradicating these amoebas in treated water samples.
Molecular detection of free-living amoebae from Namhangang (southern Han River) in Korea
TLDR
Water samples collected from the Korean hydrosphere, Namhangang (southern Han River), an active location for water skiing and recreation, showed similarities in 18S rDNA sequences, in comparison with various reference amoebae in GenBank, showed 86~99% homology with N. gruberi and Hartmannella.
Survey of Naegleria and its resisting bacteria-Legionella in hot spring water of Taiwan using molecular method
TLDR
Results of this survey confirm the existence of Naegleria and Legionella in Taiwan spring recreation areas and suggest it should be considered a potential threat for health associated with human activities in spring Recreation areas of Taiwan.
Current report on the prevalence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in natural hot springs: a systematic review.
TLDR
The present study aimed to provide the distribution of isolated cases of free-living amoebae in hot springs through a systematic review process of available published articles online.
Isolation and genotyping of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species from tap-water sources in Osaka, Japan
TLDR
A wide distribution of FLA, including potential pathogenic species, in tap-water sources of western Japan is suggested, including Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species.
Free-living ameba contamination in natural hot springs in Thailand.
TLDR
Contamination by free-living ameba in natural hot springs may pose a significant health risk to people who use such water for recreation activities.
Application of TaqMan qPCR for the detection and monitoring of Naegleria species in reservoirs used as a source for drinking water
TLDR
N. fowleri was not found in Taiwan’s reservoirs used for drinking purposes, and the presence of Naegleria spp.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-6 OF 6 REFERENCES
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri: An autopsy case in Japan
TLDR
This case is the first report of PAM due to Naegleria fowleri in Japan, and the CNS had severe, suppurative meningoencephalitis with amebic trophozoites mingled with macrophages.
Isoenzyme patterns of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Naegleria spp. using agarose isoelectric focusing.
Using agarose isoelectric focusing, the isoenzyme patterns of 7 different enzymes were compared in 52 Naegleria strains. The pathogenic N. fowleri was found the most homogeneous species. N.
Isoenzyme patterns of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Naegleria spp. using agarose isoelectric focusing.
: Using agarose isoelectric focusing, the isoenzyme patterns of 7 different enzymes were compared in 52 Naegleria strains. The pathogenic N. fowleri was found the most homogeneous species. N.
Use of Multiplex PCR and PCR Restriction Enzyme Analysis for Detection and Exploration of the Variability in the Free-Living Amoeba Naegleria in the Environment
TLDR
A multiplex PCR product distinguished the main thermophilic Naegleria species from the sampling sites and also capable of identifying N. fowleri isolates with internal transcribed spacers of different sizes.
First Isolation of Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in Japan
Cases, diagnosis, and therapy of meningoencephalitis due to pathogenic free-living amoebae—utility of PCR method
  • Antibiot. Chemother. (Osaka),
  • 2003