Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research.

@article{Richardson2007OccurrenceGA,
  title={Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research.},
  author={Susan D. Richardson and Michael J. Plewa and Elizabeth D. Wagner and Rita S. Schoeny and David M. DeMarini},
  journal={Mutation research},
  year={2007},
  volume={636 1-3},
  pages={
          178-242
        }
}
Formation of Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts (I-DBPs) in Drinking Water: Emerging Concerns and Current Issues.
TLDR
The state-of-the-art understanding of known I-DBPs for the six groups reported to date is presented, including iodinated methanes, acids, acetamides, acetonitriles, acetaldehyde, and phenols, which helps drinking water utilities, researchers, regulators, and the general public understand the formed species, levels, and formation mechanisms.
Comparative cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of 13 drinking water disinfection by-products using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay.
TLDR
Results suggest that microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and the developed SOS/umu assay are feasible tools for analysing the cytotoxic and genotoxicity of DBPs, particularly for comparing their toxic intensities quantitatively.
Formation of brominated disinfection byproducts during Chloramination of drinking water: new polar species and overall kinetics.
TLDR
A quantitative empirical model involving 33 major reactions was developed to describe the overall kinetics of brominated disinfection byproducts in chloramination, and it was found that chloramination favored the formation of aromatic and nitrogenous polar Br-DBPs and was mild enough to allow polar intermediate Br- DBPs to accumulate.
Trace analysis of 61 emerging Br-, Cl-, and I-DBPs: New methods to achieve part-per-trillion quantification in drinking water.
TLDR
This new method reports the parts-per-trillion quantification for 61 toxicologically significant DBPs from 7 different chemical classes, including unregulated iodinated haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetaldehydes, haloketones, haloACetonitriles, halonitromethanes, and h Haloacetamides.
Drinking Water Disinfection By-products
Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) are an unintended consequence of using chemical disinfectants to kill harmful pathogens in water. DBPs are formed by the reaction of disinfectants with
Which Drinking Water Disinfection Process Generates the Least Toxic DBP Mixture: Chlorination, Chloramination, Ozonation, or Chlorine Dioxide Treatment?
NOM in natural waters mainly originates from the decomposition of plants. It consists of a wide variety of complex organic compounds with molecular weights ranging from hundreds to hundreds of
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References

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Disinfection by-products and other emerging contaminants in drinking water
Halonitromethane drinking water disinfection byproducts: chemical characterization and mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.
TLDR
This research demonstrated the integration of the procedures for the analytical chemistry and analytical biology when working with limited amounts of sample and found the brominated nitromethanes were more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogues.
Carcinogenicity of the Chlorination Disinfection By-Product MX
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3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, better known by its historical name ‘mutagen X’ or MX, is a chlorination disinfection byproduct that forms from the reaction of chlorine and
Chemical and biological characterization of newly discovered iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts.
TLDR
IA is the most toxic and genotoxic DBP in mammalian cells reported in the literature, and data suggest that chloraminated drinking waters that have high bromide and iodide source waters may contain these iodoacids and most likely other iodo-DBPs.
Tribromopyrrole, brominated acids, and other disinfection byproducts produced by disinfection of drinking water rich in bromide.
TLDR
This study represents the first comprehensive investigation of DBPs formed by chlorine dioxide under high bromide conditions, and shows that fulvic acid plays a greater role in the formation of THMs, haloacetic acids, and aldehydes, but 2,3,5-tribromopyrrole was produced primarily from humic acid.
3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water.
TLDR
This work measured MX concentrations and mutagenic activity in tap water samples from 36 surface water systems throughout Massachusetts and found MX levels much higher (up to 80 ng/L) than previously reported in the United States.
Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection byproducts.
TLDR
A survey of disinfection byproduct (DBP) occurrence in the United States was conducted at 12 drinking water treatment plants to obtain quantitative occurrence information for new DBPs (beyond those currently regulated and/or studied) for prioritizing future health effects studies.
Products of aqueous chlorination of bisphenol A and their estrogenic activity.
TLDR
The transcriptional activation-induced by products were detected by a yeast two-hybrid system based on the ligand-dependent interaction of two proteins, a human ER and a coactivator, suggesting that the chlorinated BPA solution elicits an ability to mimic the effect of the estrogen hormone.
Analysis of the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of drinking water disinfection by-products in Salmonella typhimurium.
TLDR
The differential cytotoxicity expressed by the DBPs indicated that a cytot toxicity analysis enhanced the sensitivity of the mutagenicity data, which resulted in an enhanced precision for comparing their relative mutagenic strengths.
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