Occupationally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: National Case Surveillance Data During 20 Years of the HIV Epidemic in the United States

  title={Occupationally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: National Case Surveillance Data During 20 Years of the HIV Epidemic in the United States},
  author={Ann N Do and Carol A. Ciesielski and Russ Metler and Teresa A. Hammett and Jianmin Li and Patricia L. Fleming},
  journal={Infection Control \&\#x0026; Hospital Epidemiology},
  pages={86 - 96}
Abstract Objective: To characterize occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection detected through case surveillance efforts in the United States. Design: National surveillance systems, based on voluntary case reporting. Setting: Healthcare or laboratory (clinical or research) settings. Patients: Healthcare workers, defined as individuals employed in healthcare or laboratory settings (including students and trainees), who are infected with HIV. Methods: Review of data… 

Occupationally Acquired HIV Infection Among Health Care Workers — United States, 1985–2013

Case investigations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in health care workers (HCWs) possibly acquired by exposure to HIV in theworkplace are conducted by state health department HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Transmission and Prevention among Health Care Workers

Prevention is the key to transmission of HIV, require education of HCWs including other staff in the health care facility, provision of essential equipment and strict adherence to standard precautions.

Building Better Programs to Prevent Transmission of Blood-Borne Pathogens to Healthcare Personnel: Progress in the Workplace, But Still No End in Sight

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Despite a study demonstrating that use of blunt suture needles decreased the risk of percutaneous exposure during gynecologic surgical procedures, acceptance of these devices in surgical practice remains poor and obstacles to full implementation remain.

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The evidence indicates that while occasional incidents of healthcare-related HIV infection in high-income countries continue to be reported, the situation in many low- Income countries is alarming, with transmission ranging from frequent to endemic.

Current risks of occupational blood-borne viral infection.

The risks of viral infection in the operating room remain the same as a decade ago even though attention to this issue has waned, and the avoidance of blood exposure to prevent transmission of both known and unknown blood-borne pathogens continues to be a goal for all surgeons.

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis against HBV and HIV Infection in Health Care Workers

Establishing a surveillance system for registering the occurrence of occupational hazardous exposures, performing prophylactic measures and following up the exposed is a necessity in hospitals so the number of exposures and occupational diseases among the HCWs can be decreased.

Lessons learned: Protection of healthcare workers from infectious disease risks

Risks of acquisition of infectious diseases by healthcare workers can be minimized by adherence to current infection control guidelines, as summarized in this review.

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New population-based data collection systems designed to describe trends in behaviors associated with HIV transmission and better methods for measuring the true incidence of transmission will better elucidate the characteristics of HIV infection in the United States and inform future public health policies.



Occupational human immunodeficiency virus infection in health care workers: worldwide cases through September 1997.

The majority of documented infections occurred in nurses, after contact with the blood of a patient with AIDS by means of percutaneous exposure, with a device placed in an artery or vein, and in some cases despite postexposure prophylaxis with zidovudine.

A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Needlestick Surveillance Group.

The risk of HIV infection after percutaneous exposure increases with a larger volume of blood and a higher titer of HIV in the source patient's blood, and postexposure prophylaxis with zidovudine appears to be protective.

Experience of Healthcare Workers Taking Postexposure Prophylaxis After Occupational HIV Exposures: Findings of the HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis Registry

The nature and frequency of HIV PEP toxicity were consistent with information already available on the use of these antiretroviral agents, and Clinicians prescribing HIV P EP need to counsel HCWs about PEP side effects and should know how to manage PEPoxicity when it arises.

Risk of transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B virus to health care workers exposed to patients with AIDS and AIDS-related conditions.

It is indicated that health care workers are at minimal risk for HIV, CMV, and HBV transmission from occupational exposure to patients with AIDS or ARC, even when intensively exposed for prolonged periods of time.

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  • R. Marcus
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It is concluded that the risk of HIV infection after exposure to the blood of a patient infected with HIV is low, but at least six months of follow-up is recommended.

A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers After Percutaneous Exposure

The risk of HIV infection after percutaneous exposure increases with a larger volume of blood and, probably, a higher titer of HIV in the source patient’s blood.

Surveillance for occupationally acquired HIV infection--United States, 1981-1992.

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This report summarizes data on occupationally acquired HIV infection from two CDC-supported national surveillance systems through September 1992.

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Information obtained for all persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) reported to the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, includes a question about employment in a health care or clinical laboratory setting, and a review of surveillance data supports other studies indicating that the risk of human immunodficiency virus transmission in the occupational setting is low.

Surveillance of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Use among Health Care Workers after Occupational Exposure to HIV-Infected Blood

The patterns of use and associated toxicity of postexposure zidovudine use among enrolled workers are focused on and the failure of zidvudine to prevent HIV infection in one worker is reported.

Simultaneous transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus from a needle-stick injury.

Recommendations for follow-up after occupational exposure to HIV-infected blood include HIV-antibody testing at the time of exposure and periodically for at least six months thereafter.