Regulation of ATP production by mitochondrial Ca2+
The [gamma-32P]ATP-back-titration method of estimating occupancy in vivo of the three phosphorylation sites in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was improved in precision by specific analysis with trypsin/formic acid, by more effective prevention of site-2 dephosphorylation during purification with NaF, and by other refinements. Disproportionation of phosphorylated complexes during purification was excluded. With this improved method it was shown that the relationship between occupancy of sites and the proportion of complex in the inactive form in rat heart in vivo is closely similar to that measured directly in heart mitochondria by incorporation of [32P]Pi. In the heart in vivo (as in mitochondria), occupancy of site 1 correlated linearly with the proportion of inactive complex. Occupancy of sites 2 and 3 only approached equivalence to that of site 1 when 99% of the complex was inactive (starved or diabetic rats). When 70% or less of the complex was inactive (resting or exercising fed normal rats), occupancy of sites 2 and 3 was minimal (3 less than 2) relative to site 1. The initial rate of re-activation by phosphatase of phosphorylated complex from hearts of resting or exercising fed normal rats was approximately three times that of complex from 48 h-starved rats.