Occult hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections

@article{Carreno2008OccultHB,
  title={Occult hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections},
  author={Vicente Carreño and Javier Bartolomé and Inmaculada Castillo and Juan Antonio Quiroga},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
  year={2008},
  volume={18}
}
Occult HBV infection is a well‐recognised clinical entity characterised by the detection of HBV‐DNA in serum and/or in liver in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV infection has been described not only in patients who have resolved an acute or chronic HBV infection but also in patients without any serological markers of a past HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in patients with chronic HCV infection may induce more severe liver disease and lower response… Expand
New perspectives in occult hepatitis C virus infection.
TLDR
The persistence of very low levels of HCV RNA in serum and in PBMCs, along with the maintenance of specific T-cell responses against HCV-antigens observed during a long-term follow-up of patients with occult hepatitis C, indicate that occult HCV is a persistent infection that is not spontaneously eradicated. Expand
Review: Occult hepatitis C virus infection: Still remains a controversy
TLDR
Data accumulated over the last decade demonstrated that an effective approach to the diagnosis of HCV infection would be the implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays, and also, examination of the presence of viral particles in the cells of the immune system. Expand
Occult Hepatitis B Infection and its Possible Impact on Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection
TLDR
Evidence suggests a possible correlation with lower response to anti-viral treatment, higher grades of liver histological changes, and also developing hepatocellular carcinoma, but further studies should be conducted to absolutely assess the impact of occult HBV contamination on the HCV related liver disease. Expand
Role of occult hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis C patients with flare of liver enzymes.
TLDR
The presence of occult hepatitis B, with its added deleterious effect, must always be considered in chronic hepatitis C patients especially those with flare in liver enzymes; HBsAg should not be used alone for the diagnosis of HBV infection. Expand
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TLDR
Occult HBV infection occurred in a high percentage of patients but was not clinically significant, and no statistically significant difference in the epidemiological, histological, or virological or response to therapy data was found in patients with occultHBV infection. Expand
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TLDR
The present data suggest that occult HBV infection occurs frequently in patients with CHC and may have clinical significance, but the present data related to this issue have been inconsistent and additional prospective studies are required to confirm whether occultHBV infection accelerates the progression of liver injury in patientswith CHC. Expand
Detection of Occult Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B Virus Infections from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
TLDR
Patients with long-standing abnormal results of liver-function tests with unknown etiology may have HCV RNA or HBV DNA in their PBMCs in the absence of anti-HCV antibodies, HBV markers, serum HBVDNA and serumHCV RNA. Expand
Prevalence of Occult Hepatitis B Virus in Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Compartments of Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in Tehran-Iran
TLDR
In conclusion, occult HBV was found in 36% of patients with negative results for HBsAg, but positive results for HCV, which provided more true identification of OBI. Expand
Occult HCV Infection in Hemodialysis Patients with Elevated Liver Enzymes
TLDR
Occult HCV infection was rare in HD patients with elevated levels of liver enzymes, and this cross sectional study was performed in hemodialysis patients referring to 3 dialysis units in Tehran. Expand
Occult hepatitis B infection in egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients: prevalence, impact on pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy
TLDR
Detection of HBV DNA in HBsAg negative chronic HCV patients plays a non significant role in non-response of Egyptian patients to pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy. Expand
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TLDR
Liver disease in patients with occult dual infection was not more severe than in Patients with single occult HBV or occult HCV infection, and in occultDual infection there is no a reciprocal inhibition of the viral genomes. Expand
Occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease.
TLDR
Occult hepatitis B infection occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease and may have clinical significance, and none of the sequenced HBV genomes had changes known to interfere with viral activity and gene expression. Expand
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TLDR
Patients with occult HBV infection have a low number of HBV‐infected hepatocytes and this fact could explain the lack of HBsAg detection and low viremia levels found in these cases. Expand
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TLDR
The data suggest that occultHBV infection does not have clinical significance in chronic hepatitis C patients residing in areas where HBV infection is endemic. Expand
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TLDR
Occult HBV infection in Greek patients with chronic hepatitis C does not seem to modify the progression of chronic liver disease, and neither epidemiological, histologic and virologic data nor the response to therapy were associated with the HBV‐DNA detection. Expand
Occult HBV infection may represent a major risk factor of non‐response to antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C
TLDR
HBV‐DNA is found in 1/4 of French chronic hepatitis C patients regardless of the presence of anti‐HBc, and such an occult HBV co‐infection is associated with more severe liver disease, higher HCV viral load and decreased response to antiviral therapy irrespective of HCV genotypes. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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