Occlusion of biliary endoprostheses: presentation and management.


A retrospective review of 20 cases of endoprosthesis occlusion in 17 patients was performed. The average length of stent patency before occlusion was 3.7 months. Clinical manifestations included one or a combination of the following: cholangitis (n = 17), jaundice (n = 9), and leakage of bile or purulent material from the percutaneous insertion site (n = 6… (More)


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