A term female infant was delivered after an uneventful pregnancy and labor. Delivery was complicated by shoulder dystocia and the infant was noted to have a left upper extremity palsy. There was no Horner syndrome. EMG confirmed the diagnosis of a left C5-C6-C7 injury. Despite intensive physical therapy, follow-up at the age of 5 months showed no biceps muscle function. Consecutive imaging studies were performed at our department. An MRI at the age of 5 months showed a pseudomeningocele at the level C7-T1 with a root avulsion of C8 on the left side (Fig. 1). Hence a surgical intervention was required. At the age of 6 months she was treated with peripheral nerve grafting followed by several months of multidisciplinary therapy for optimizing shoulder outcome. A partial motor functional recovery of the left upper limb was observed during this period. At the age of 3 years and 2 months, a radiograph of the shoulders demonstrated glenohumeral dysplasia of the left shoulder (Fig. 2). A subsequently performed MRI confirmed a posterior subluxation of the left shoulder, glenohumeral deformity and severe atrophy and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles (Fig. 3).