Observations on Annotations

  title={Observations on Annotations},
  author={Georg Rehm},
  • Georg Rehm
  • Published 21 April 2020
  • Computer Science
  • ArXiv
The annotation of textual information is a fundamental activity in Linguistics and Computational Linguistics. This article presents various observations on annotations. It approaches the topic from several angles including Hypertext, Computational Linguistics and Language Technology, Artificial Intelligence and Open Science. Annotations can be examined along different dimensions. In terms of complexity, they can range from trivial to highly sophisticated, in terms of maturity from experimental… 

Figures from this paper


A formal framework for linguistic annotation
The INCEpTION Platform: Machine-Assisted and Knowledge-Oriented Interactive Annotation
INCEpTION is a new annotation platform for tasks including interactive and semantic annotation (e.g., concept linking, fact linking, knowledge base population, semantic frame annotation) that incorporates machine learning capabilities which actively assist and guide annotators.
SusTEInability of linguistic resources through feature structures
This article shows that the TEI tag set for feature structures can be adopted to represent a heterogeneous set of linguistic corpora, and the mapping process and representational issues are discussed as well as the advantages and drawbacks associated with the use of the TEi tag set as a storage and exchange format for linguistically annotated data.
Designing Annotation Schemes: From Theory to Model
This chapter describes the method and process of transforming the theoretical formulations of a linguistic phenomenon, based on empirical observations, into a model that can be used for the development of a language annotation specification, and examines how this methodology has been implemented in the creation of TimeML, a broad-based standard for annotating temporal information in natural language texts.
GrAF: A Graph-based Format for Linguistic Annotations
GrAF is an extension of the Linguistic Annotation Framework developed within ISO TC37 SC4 and as such, implements state-of-the-art best practice guidelines for representing linguistic annotations and allows for the application of well-established graph traversal and analysis algorithms.
A Web-based Tool for the Integrated Annotation of Semantic and Syntactic Structures
The concept of slot features is introduced, a novel constraint mechanism that allows modelling the interaction between semantic and syntactic annotations, as well as a new annotation user interface in WebAnno, a generic web-based annotation tool for distributed teams.
Overview of Annotation Creation: Processes and Tools
This chapter outlines the process of creating end-to-end linguistic annotations, identifying specific tasks that researchers often perform, and focuses more on abstract capabilities and problems because new tools appear continuously, while old tools disappear into disuse or disrepair.
Linguistic Modeling of Information and Markup Languages: Contributions to Language Technology
This book covers the most significant recent developments in this field, from multi-layered mark-up and standards to theoretical formalisms to applications, and offers an exhaustive coverage of many of the current topics in the fields concerned.
Modelling Linguistic Data Structures
As some structures, such as these, cannot be modeled by multi-rooted trees, an even more flexible approach is needed in order to provide a generic annotation format that is able to represent genuinely arbitrary linguistic data structures.
Simple Annotation Tools for Complex Annotation Tasks : an Evaluation
A comparative evaluation of ready-to-use, XML-based tools for annotating linguistic data and a set of evaluation criteria are developed and applied in the evaluation of five selected annotation tools.