Observations of the Icy Universe

  title={Observations of the Icy Universe},
  author={A. C. A. Boogert and Perry A. Gerakines and Douglas C. B. Whittet},
  journal={Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics},
Freeze-out of the gas-phase elements onto cold grains in dense interstellar and circumstellar media builds up ice mantles consisting of molecules that are mostly formed in situ (H2O, NH3, CO2, CO, CH3OH, and more). This review summarizes the detected infrared spectroscopic ice features and compares the abundances across Galactic, extragalactic, and Solar System environments. A tremendous amount of information is contained in the ice band profiles. Laboratory experiments play a critical role in… Expand
Telescope Observations of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ices: Successes of and Need for Laboratory Simulations
  • A. Boogert
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2015
Abstract Ices play a key role in the formation of simple and complex molecules in dense molecular clouds and in the envelopes and protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars. Some fraction of theExpand
X-ray processing of a realistic ice mantle can explain the gas abundances in protoplanetary disks
Significance Of the over 200 molecules observed in the tenuous gas filling the space between stars, many are organic. Such species mostly form in simple molecular ices coating dust grains in darkExpand
Spectroscopic measurements of CH3OH in layered and mixed interstellar ice analogues
Context. The molecular composition of interstellar ice mantles is defined by gas-grain processes in molecular clouds, with the main components being H2O, CO, and CO2. Methanol (CH3OH) ice is detectedExpand
Infrared Spectroscopy and Programmed Thermal Desorption of Ice Mixtures
In the coldest regions of the interstellar medium, ice mantles are accreted on the surface of dust grains. These ice mantles are detected by infrared telescopes, revealing their composition,Expand
Swift heavy ion modifications of astrophysical water ice
In the relatively shielded environments provided by interstellar dense clouds in our Galaxy, infrared astronomical observations have early revealed the presence of low temperature (10–100 K) iceExpand
Phase Transition of Interstellar CO Ice
Among the over 200 molecular species identified in interstellar clouds, many are organic molecules. It has been proposed that some of these molecules survive the star and planet formation process andExpand
Solid CO2 in quiescent dense molecular clouds: Comparison between Spitzer and laboratory spectra
Context. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one of the most abundant species detected in icy grain mantles in star forming regions. Laboratory experiments have shown that CO 2 molecules are efficiently formedExpand
Dust/ice mixing in cold regions and solid-state water in the diffuse interstellar medium
Whether ice in cold cosmic environments is physically separated from the silicate dust or mixed with individual silicate moieties is not known. However, different grain models give very differentExpand
The first frost in the Pipe Nebula
Spectroscopic studies of ices in nearby star-forming regions indicate that ice mantles form on dust grains in two distinct steps, starting with polar ice formation (H2O rich) and switching to apolarExpand
Questions about the evolution of ices, from diffuse molecular clouds to comets
  • A. Boogert
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2019
Abstract The surfaces of interstellar and circumstellar dust grains are the sites of molecule formation, most of which, except H2, stick and form ice mantles. The study of ice evolution thus seemsExpand


Cold gas as an ice diagnostic toward low mass protostars
Context. Up to 90% of the chemical reactions during star formation occurs on ice surfaces, probably including the formation of complex organics. Only the most abundant ice species are howeverExpand
Ice and Dust in the Prestellar Dark Cloud Lynds 183: Preplanetary Matter at the Lowest Temperatures
Dust grains are nucleation centers and catalysts for the growth of icy mantles in quiescent interstellar clouds, the products of which may accumulate into preplanetary matter when new stars and solarExpand
Observational Constraints on Methanol Production in Interstellar and Preplanetary Ices
Methanol (CH3OH) is thought to be an important link in the chain of chemical evolution that leads from simple diatomic interstellar molecules to complex organic species in protoplanetary disks thatExpand
Detection of strongly processed ice in the central starburst of NGC 4945
The composition of ice grains provides an important tool for the study of the molecular environment of star forming regions. Using ISAAC at the VLT to obtain spectra around 4.65m we have detected forExpand
The Nature of Carbon Dioxide Bearing Ices in Quiescent Molecular Clouds
The properties of the ices that form in dense molecular clouds represent an important set of initial conditions in the evolution of interstellar and preplanetary matter in regions of active starExpand
The Ice Survey Opportunity of ISO
The instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory have for the first time allowed a complete low (PHOT, CVF) to medium resolution (SWS) spectroscopic harvest, from 2.5 to 45 μm, of interstellarExpand
The Environment and Nature of the Class I Protostar Elias 29: Molecular Gas Observations and the Location of Ices
A (sub-)millimeter line and continuum study of the Class I protostar Elias 29 in the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud is presented whose goals are to understand the nature of this source and to locate theExpand
Observation of interstellar ammonia ice
An absorption band probably due to solid ammonia on interstellar grains has been detected in the infrared spectrum at 2.97 ..mu..m of the Becklin-Neugebauer object and probably in NGC 2264-IR. AnExpand
Ice and Dust in the Quiescent Medium of Isolated Dense Cores
The relation between ices in the envelopes and disks surrounding young stellar objects (YSOs) and those in the quiescent interstellar medium (ISM) is investigated. For a sample of 31 stars behindExpand
Ethane, acetylene, ethanol, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxyde are either predicted by theoretical models to be abun- dant in the icy mantles on grains in dense clouds, or were found to be produced byExpand