Observations of Biologically Generated Turbulence in a Coastal Inlet

@article{Kunze2006ObservationsOB,
  title={Observations of Biologically Generated Turbulence in a Coastal Inlet},
  author={Eric L Kunze and John F. Dower and I Beveridge and Richard K. Dewey and Kevin Bartlett},
  journal={Science},
  year={2006},
  volume={313},
  pages={1768 - 1770}
}
Measurements in a coastal inlet revealed turbulence that was three to four orders of magnitude larger during the dusk ascent of a dense acoustic-scattering layer of krill than during the day, elevating daily-averaged mixing in the inlet by a factor of 100. Because vertically migrating layers of swimming organisms are found in much of the ocean, biologically generated turbulence may affect (i) the transport of inorganic nutrients to the often nutrient-depleted surface layer from underlying… 
On Turbulence Production by Swimming Marine Organisms in the Open Ocean and Coastal Waters
Abstract Microstructure and acoustic profile time series were collected near Ocean Station P in the eastern subarctic North Pacific and in Saanich Inlet at the south end of Vancouver Island, British
Intense upper ocean mixing due to large aggregations of spawning fish
Small-scale turbulent mixing plays a pivotal role in shaping ocean circulation and a broad range of physical and biogeochemical processes. Despite advances in our understanding of the geophysical
The Role of Biologically-Generated Turbulence in the Upper Ocean
Abstract : Our interests are in oceanic processes that contribute to stirring and mixing to understand their impact on larger scales so that better sub-grid scale parameterizations may be
Role of vertical migration in biogenic ocean mixing
Recent efforts to empirically measure and numerically simulate biogenic ocean mixing have consistently observed low mixing efficiency. This suggests that the buoyancy flux achieved by swimming
In situ measurements of turbulence in fish shoals
Turbulence was measured in situ within shoals of juvenile perch Perca fluviatilis with a self‐contained autonomous microstructure profiler near an artificial reef in Lake Constance, Germany.
On biogenic turbulence production and mixing from vertically migrating zooplankton in lakes
Vertical mixing in lakes is a key driver of transport of ecologically important dissolved constituents, such as oxygen and nutrients. In this study we focus our attention on biomixing, which refers
Morphology Alters Fluid Transport and the Ability of Organisms to Mix Oceanic Waters.
  • K. Katija
  • Environmental Science
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2015
TLDR
Numerical simulations of fluid drift showed that morphology coupled with swimming behavior alters the transport of fluid both spatially and temporally, and enabled the potential of swimming organisms to influence fluid transport to be deduced.
A New Sensor Platform for Investigating Turbulence in Stratified Coastal Environments
AbstractCharacterizing and quantifying vertical exchange processes is essential for understanding physical and biological dynamics in stratified lakes and oceans. Unfortunately, the role of mixing is
Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence
Measurements of currents and turbulence beneath a geostationary ship in the equatorial Indian Ocean during a period of weak surface forcing revealed unexpectedly strong turbulence beneath the surface
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 71 REFERENCES
Does the marine biosphere mix the ocean
Ocean mixing is thought to control the climatically important oceanic overturning circulation. Here we argue the marine biosphere, by a mechanism like the bioturbation occurring in marine sediments,
Velcro Measurement of Turbulence Kinetic Energy Dissipation Rate ε
Abstract Turbulence in the ocean results from many different processes operating over a wide range of space scales and timescales, with spatial and temporal variability particularly extreme in
Influence of animals on turbulence in the sea
Analysis of data on the hydrodynamics of swimming by 100 species, ranging in body mass (M) from bacteria to blue whales, leads to a model of animal-induced turbulence in the ocean. Swimming speeds
Evidence for slow mixing across the pycnocline from an open-ocean tracer-release experiment
THE distributions of heat, salt and trace substances in the ocean thermocline depend on mixing along and across surfaces of equal density (isopycnal and diapycnal mixing, respectively). Measurements
Analysis of the flow field of the krill, Euphausia pacifica
Velocity measurements were performed for the flow field generated by tethered krill Euphausia pacifica. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to measure the velocity field in
Diapycnal mixing in the thermocline: A review
Diapycnal fluxes of momentum and heat produced by three-dimensional turbulence play important, but poorly understood, roles in the dynamics of the main thermocline and of the equatorial undercurrent.
Sonar estimates of daytime activity levels of Euphausia pacifica in Saanich Inlet
A three-dimensional multibeam tracking sonar system (FishTV) was deployed in the stratified waters of Saanich Inlet in July-August of 1996 and 1997 to assess the swimming behavior of euphausiids in
Constraining bubble dynamics and mixing with dissolved gases: Implications for productivity measurements by oxygen mass balance
We used a dynamic mixed layer model to determine carbon export by the oxygen mass balance method from a time series of O-2/Ar, N-2/Ar and Ne measurements collected at station ALOHA near Hawaii from
Use of the Pisces IV Submersible for Zooplankton Studies in Coastal Waters of British Columbia
TLDR
A method for calculating plankton densities from estimates of mean interanimal distances is described, and several species were found to exist within unexpectedly narrow and sharply defined layers, often at densities greatly surpassing density estimates based on net samples.
...
...