Observations and comments on the reliability of muscle reconstruction in fossil vertebrates

  title={Observations and comments on the reliability of muscle reconstruction in fossil vertebrates},
  author={Harold N. Bryant and Kevin L. Seymour},
  journal={Journal of Morphology},
In Canis and Ursus the largest proportion of attachments of muscles of the shoulder and brachium on the scapula and humerus is direct; fewer attachments are aponeurotic or tendinous. In both genera most attachments can be associated with superficial osteological features (scars or delimitable surfaces); attachments that lack such features are direct. Most aponeurotic attachments are associated with rugose scarring whereas tendinous attachments are often associated with smooth surfaces. Although… 

Quantitative microanatomy of jaw muscle attachment in extant diapsids

This study examines the microanatomical correlates of muscle attachment for the mandibular adductors in six species of diapsids and concludes that comparable densities of extrinsic fibers in fossil tissue constitutes strong and readily interpretable positive evidence for the presence of adjacent fibrous connective tissue in life.

Myological reconstruction of the pelvic girdle and hind limb of the giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Dreadnoughtus schrani

Recovering the pelvic girdle and hind limb musculature of the giant titanosaurian sauropod Dreadnoughtus schrani is reconstructed based on observations of osteological correlates and Extant Phylogenetic Bracket comparisons to address specific evolutionary and biomechanical questions related to their skeletal anatomy.

Cranial myology and bite force performance of Erlikosaurus andrewsi: a novel approach for digital muscle reconstructions

A detailed reconstruction of the adductor musculature of the Cretaceous therizinosaur Erlikosaurus andrewsi is presented based on a stepwise and iterative approach, which indicates that the low bite performance was mainly used for leaf‐stripping and plant cropping, rather than active mastication or chewing processes.

Middle phalanx skeletal morphology in the hand: can it predict flexor tendon size and attachments?

The hypothesis that the lateral fossae reflect the size of the FDS tendon and the location of the terminal F DS tendon attachments on the middle phalanx must be rejected, and that future attention should focus on functional implications of the palmar median bar associated with the lateral Fossae.

Appendicular myological reconstruction of the forelimb of the giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Dreadnoughtus schrani

This study reconstructs the forelimb and shoulder girdle musculature of the giant titanosaurian sauropod Dreadnoughtus schrani based on observations of osteological correlates and dissections of taxa comprising the Extant Phylogenetic Bracket of non‐avian dinosaurs (crocodilians and birds).

Fifth metatarsal morphology does not predict presence or absence of fibularis tertius muscle in hominids.

Fifth metatarsal morphology offers little reliable information about the presence of fibularis tertius or the timing of its appearance in the human career, and is concluded to be useless for interpreting the locomotor behavior of fossil hominids.

Forelimb Muscle and Muscle Attachment Morphology

  • K. Rabey
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • 2014
No consistent patterns between muscle architecture and entheseal morphology were found, although considering the underlying cortical bone of an attachment site seemed more informative of the associated muscle.

Three-dimensional mobility and muscle attachments in the pectoral limb of the Triassic cynodont Massetognathus pascuali

The musculoskeletal reconstruction presented here provides the anatomical scaffolding for more detailed examination of locomotor evolution in the precursors to mammals.

Reconstruction of the Forelimb Musculature of the Cretaceous Ornithopod Dinosaur Oryctodromeus cubicularis: Implications for Digging

Reconstruction of the forelimb musculature of Oryctodromeus was carried out using the extant phylogenetic bracket method, with crocodilians and ratites as the extant analogues, aided by the presence of osteological correlates in Ory CTD dinosaur and other ornithopods.

New Reconstruction of Cranial Musculature in Ornithischian Dinosaurs: Implications for Feeding Mechanisms and Buccal Anatomy

Cranomandibular material of ornithischian genera spanning all subclades is reexamined for osteological correlates indicative of intracranial and oral soft tissues and the notion of a novel, unparsimonious “cheek” muscle is rejected, with further discussion of plausible buccal soft tissues.



The appendicular skeleton of the Early Permian genus Labidosaurus (Reptilia, Captorhinomorpha, Captorhinidae) and the hind limb musculature of captorhinid reptiles

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The present skeleto-muscular data suggests that ratites are primitive birds that evolved from a primitive, volant ancestor and should be regarded as primitive birds, rather than as advanced birds that evolve from carinates.

The pelvic musucJature of the dinosaur Hypsilophodon (Reptilia: Ornithischia)

Evidence is provided to show that: 1) the prepubic process, diagnostic of an ornithischian, did not provide the main support for the abdomen; 2) the abdomen was large and extended ventral to the

The osteology and musculature of the pectoral limb of small captorhinids

The osteology of the pectoral limb of small captorhinids is described and figured in detail and the glenoid was not a simple sliding or rocking joint, but considerable rotation was also an integral part of the humeral movement.

Ostrich Dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Western Canada

The family Ornithomimidae is defined on the basis of the skeletal morphology of the three genera Ornithomimus, Struthiomimus, and Dromiceiomimus known in continental strata in Alberta, which are

Functional bases of fiber length and angulation in muscle

An outline for the study of muscle architecture and function, detailing the kinds of information required to estimate forces and evaluate muscle and fiber placements, is presented.

The hind limb musculature of the brown kiwi, Apteryx australis mantelli

A detailed description of the hind leg musculature of the kiwi is given, based upon dissections of two frozen specimens, with an indication of the possible function of each muscle by assessing its size, action, and fiber‐arrangement.

Haemothermia or Archosauria? The interrelationships of mammals, birds and crocodiles

Several lines of evidence all lead to the conclusion that the traditional theory of a relationship between birds and crocodiles, vis a vis mammals is substantially the better supported.

Climbing adaptations in the early eocene mammal Chriacus and the origin of artiodactyla.

A virtually complete articulated skeleton of the arctocyonid Chriacus is found in northern Wyoming, and it exhibits numerous adaptations characteristic of mammals that climb, including strong bony crests and processes, which contrast sharply with those of the oldest artiodactyls.

Skeleton of the Oldest Known Pinniped, Enaliarctos mealsi

Skeletal modifications seen in Enaliarctos document swimming adaptations and indicate that pinnipeds primitively used the axial skeleton and both fore and hindflippers as sources of propulsion.