Observational Learning in Octopus vulgaris

  title={Observational Learning in Octopus vulgaris},
  author={Graziano Fiorito and Pietro Scotto},
  pages={545 - 547}
Untrained Octopus vulgaris (observers) were allowed to watch conditioned Octopus(demonstrators) perform the task of selecting one of two objects that were presented simultaneously and differed only in color. After being placed in isolation, the observers, in a similar test, consistently selected the same object as did the demonstrators. This learning by observation occurred irrespective of the object chosen by the demonstrators as the positive choice and was more rapid than the learning that… 
The role of stimulus preexposure in problem solving by Octopus vulgaris
Although octopuses failed to benefit from greater familiarity with the training context or with selected elements of the task of solving the jar problem, the methodological strategies used are instructive in potentially clarifying the role of complex problem-solving behaviors in this species including stimulus preexposure and social learning.
Visual Discrimination Learning in the Small Octopus Octopus ocellatus
In a successive visual discrimination task, in which a ‘positive’ or ‘negative’ stimulus was presented to a subject octopus and appropriate rewards or punishments were given to the subject, the rate of ‘correct’ responses gradually increased, indicating that this species is potentially suitable for neurogenetic and neuroembryological studies of learning.
Reversal of a Spatial Discrimination Task in the Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris)
The authors' results indicate that octopuses are able to perform successfully in a reversal experiment based on a spatial discrimination showing progressive improvement, however, without reaching the ultimate performance.
I Know My Neighbour: Individual Recognition in Octopus vulgaris
Octopuses appear able to recognise conspecifics and to remember the individual previously met for at least one day in the first experimental study showing the occurrence of a form of IR in cephalopods.
Can cuttlefish learn by observing others?
The results indicate that most cuttlefish did not learn by observing others, but individual differences exist, and some cuttle fish may have the potential of observational learning/conditioning within their cognitive capacities.
Visual Lateralization in the Cephalopod Mollusk Octopus vulgaris
The findings suggest that visual lateralization in O. vulgaris is context-dependent, and individual-level asymmetry in some animals when faced with either natural or artificial stimuli, but not when exploring the maze.


Conditioning of a free operant in Octupus cyaneus Gray.
An "arm-out-of-water" operant, in which the octopus inserted an arm up a feeding-tube breaking the water surface, proved susceptible to reinforcement schedules.
Observational Learning in Birds: the Establishment of Behavioral Modes
Additional evidence is provided to support the view that species characteristic behaviour may be determined by imitative processes and the establishment of traditions, as well as by innate differences in structure and behaviour.
Evidence that Octopus is Colour Blind
1.Six octopuses were trained on a series of visual discrimination tasks where the discriminanda were presented simultaneously, and where different tasks alternated in a single training session. 2.All
The visual attack learning system in Octopus vulgaris.
  • H. Maldonado
  • Computer Science
    Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1963
Observational learning of two visual discriminations by pigeons: a within-subjects design.
Pigeon's observational learning of successive visual discrimination was studied using within-subject comparisons of data from three experimental conditions, showing differential effects of exposure were not attributable to order effects or to task difficulty; rather they clearly were due to the type of exposure.
Home occupancy by male Octopus vulgaris in a large seawater tank
  • P. Boyle
  • Environmental Science
    Animal Behaviour
  • 1980