Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

  title={Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.},
  author={John Abraham and Pedro Abreu and Marco Aglietta and C. Aguirre and Denis Allard and Ingomar Allekotte and J. Allen and P. Allison and Jaime {\'A}lvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and M. Ambrosio and Luis A. Anchordoqui and Sofia Andringa and Anna Anzalone and Carla Aramo and Stefano Argiro and Katsushi Arisaka and Eric Armengaud and Francesco Arneodo and Fernando Arqueros and T. Asch and Hern{\'a}n Asorey and P. Assis and B. S. Atulugama and Julien Aublin and Maximo Ave and Gualberto Avila and Thomas B{\"a}cker and D. Badagnani and Ademarlaudo F. Barbosa and David Barnhill and S. L. C. Barroso and Brian M. Baughman and Pablo Bauleo and James J. Beatty and Tristan Beau and B. R. Becker and Kurt H. Becker and J Almirall Bellido and Segev BenZvi and Corinne Berat and T. Bergmann and Paolo Bernardini and Xavier Bertou and Peter L. Biermann and P. Billoir and O. Blanch-Bigas and Francisco Blanco and Pasquale Blasi and Carla Bleve and H. Bl{\"u}mer and Martina Boh{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and C. Bonifazi and R. Bonino and Jeffrey Brack and Pedro Brogueira and William Cullen Brown and Peter Buchholz and A. Bueno and Ross E. Burton and Nicol{\'a}s G. Busca and Karen S. Caballero-Mora and Bei Cai and David V. Camin and Laurenţiu I. Caramete and Rossella Caruso and Washington Rodrigues de Carvalho and Antonella Castellina and Osvaldo Catalano and Gabriella Cataldi and Lorenzo Cazon and Rosanna Cester and Jo{\"e} Chauvin and Andrea Chiavassa and Jose Augusto Chinellato and Aaron S. Chou and Jiri Chudoba and J. Chye and P D J Clark and Roger Clay and E. Colombo and R{\'u}ben Conceiç{\~a}o and Brian M. Connolly and Fernando Contreras and Joseph Coppens and Alain Cordier and U. Cotti and St{\'e}phane Coutu and Corbin Edward Covault and Alexandre Creusot and A. Criss and James W. Cronin and A. Curutiu and Sylvie Dagoret-Campagne and Kai Daumiller and Bruce R. Dawson and Rog{\'e}rio M. de Almeida and Cinzia De Donato and S. J. de Jong and Gonzalo de la Vega and W.J.M. de Mello Junior and Jo{\~a}o de Mello Neto and Ivan De Mitri and Vitor de Souza and Luis del Peral and Olivier Deligny and A. Della Selva and C. Delle Fratte and Hans Peter Dembinski and C. Di Giulio and J. C. Chirinos Diaz and P. N. Diep and Carola Dobrigkeit and Juan Carlos D'Olivo and P. N. Dong and Damien Dornic and Alexei V. Dorofeev and J C dos Anjos and M. T. Dova and Domenico D'urso and Ioana Duţan and Michael DuVernois and Ralph Engel and L. N. Epele and Martin Erdmann and Carlos Ourivio Escobar and Alberto Etchegoyen and Pedro Facal San Luis and Heino Falcke and Glennys R. Farrar and A. Campos Fauth and Norberto Fazzini and Francesc Ferrer and A. Ferrero and Brian E. Fick and Alberto Filevich and Andrej Filip{\vc}i{\vc} and Ivor Fleck and Claudia Fracchiolla and Walter Fulgione and Beatriz Garcia and Diego Garc{\'i}a G{\'a}mez and Diego Garc{\'i}a-Pinto and X. Garrido and Heiko Geenen and Graciela B. Gelmini and Hartmut Gemmeke and Piera Luisa Ghia and Maria Giller and Henry D. Glass and M. S. Gold and Geraldina Golup and Flavia Alejandra G{\'o}mez Albarrac{\'i}n and Mariano G{\'o}mez Berisso and P. Gonçalves and Marcelo Gonçalves do Amaral and Daniel Gonzalez and J. G. Gonzalez and M. M. Gonz{\'a}lez and Dariusz G{\'o}ra and Alessio Gorgi and Philippe Gouffon and Valerio Grassi and Aurelio F. Grillo and C. M. Grunfeld and Yann Guardincerri and Fausto Guarino and Germano P. Guedes and J. Guti{\'e}rrez and John D. Hague and Vitali Halenka and J. C. Hamilton and Patricia Hansen and Diego D. Harari and S. Harmsma and John L. Harton and Andreas Haungs and T. Hauschildt and Matthew D. Healy and Thomas Hebbeker and G. Hebrero and D. Heck and Carlos Hojvat and V. C. Holmes and Piotr Homola and J{\"o}rg H{\"o}randel and Andreas Horneffer and Miroslav Hrabovsky and T. Huege and M. H. Hussain and Marco Iarlori and Antonio Insolia and F. Ionita and Antonio Italiano and M. Kaducak and K-H. Kampert and T. Karova and Peter Kasper and Bal{\'a}zs K{\'e}gl and Bianca Keilhauer and Ernesto Kemp and Roger M. Kieckhafer and H. Klages and M. Kleifges and Jonny Kleinfeller and Robert Knapik and Johannes Knapp and Dy. Holm Koang and A. Krieger and Olaf Kr{\"o}mer and Daniel Kuempel and Norbert Kunka and Alexander Kusenko and Giovanni La Rosa and Cyril Lachaud and Bruno L. Lago and Denis Lebrun and Paul L. G. Lebrun and J. S. H. Lee and M.A.L. de Oliveira and Antoine Letessier-Selvon and Matthias J. Leuthold and Isabelle Lhenry-Yvon and R. Rebolo Lopez and {\'A}ngeles L{\'o}pez Ag{\"u}era and Julio Lozano Bahilo and Agustin Lucero and R. Luna Garc{\'i}a and Maria Concetta Maccarone and Carla Macolino and Simone Maldera and Giovanni Mancarella and M{\'o}nica E. Mance{\~n}ido and Du{\vs}an Mand{\'a}t and Paul Mantsch and Analisa G. Mariazzi and Ioana Codrina Mariş and H. R. Marquez Falcon and Daniele Martello and J. D. Martinez and Oscar Mart'inez Bravo and H. J. Mathes and James Matthews and J. A. Matthews and Giorgio Matthiae and Daniela Maurizio and Peter Mazur and Thomas McCauley and M. Mcewen and R. R. Mcneil and M. C. Medina and Gustavo A. Medina-Tanco and Diego G. Melo and Ezio A. Menichetti and A. V. Menschikov and Christine Meurer and Rishi Meyhandan and Mar{\'i}a Isabel Micheletti and Gennaro Miele and Warner A. Miller and Silvia Mollerach and Maria Monasor and D. Monnier Ragaigne and Franccois Montanet and B. Morales and Carlo Morello and Juan Carlos Gonzalez Moreno and Christopher L. Morris and M. Mostaf{\'a} and Marcio Aparecido Muller and Roberto Mussa and Gianni Navarra and Jos{\'e} Luis Pastor Navarro and Sergio S{\'a}nchez Navas and Petr Ne{\vc}esal and Lukas Nellen and Catherine Newman-Holmes and David Newton and P. T. Nhung and Nils Nierstenhoefer and Dave F. Nitz and Dalibor Nosek and Libor No{\vz}ka and J. Oehlschl{\"a}ger and Tohru Ohnuki and Angela V. Olinto and V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja and M. Ortiz and Fabrizio Ortolani and S. Ostapchenko and Lidia Otero and Noelia Pacheco and Daniel Pakk Selmi-Dei and Miroslav Palatka and Juan Pallotta and Gonzalo Parente and Etienne Parizot and Sandra Parlati and Sergio Pastor and M. Patel and Thomas Cantzon Paul and V. Pavlidou and K'evin Payet and Miroslav Pech and Jan Pekala and Rodrigo Pelayo and I. Pepe and Lorenzo M Perrone and Roberto Pesce and Sergio Petrera and Paolo Petrinca and Yevgeniy Petrov and Ana Pichel and Ricardo Piegaia and Tanguy Pierog and M{\'a}rio Pimenta and Teguayco Pinto and Valerio Pirronello and Ofelia Pisanti and Manuel Platino and Jonathan Pochon and Paolo Privitera and Michael Prouza and E. Quel and Julian Rautenberg and Ana R. Redondo and Steve Reucroft and Beno{\^i}t Revenu and F. A. S. Rezende and Jan Ř{\'i}dk{\'y} and Simone Riggi and Markus Risse and C. Rivi{\`e}re and Vincenzo Rizi and Michael D. Roberts and C. Robledo and G. R. Gonzalvo Rodriguez and Julio Rodr{\'i}guez Martino and Jorge Rub'en Rodriguez Rojo and I. Rodr{\'i}guez-Cabo and Mar{\'i}a Dolores Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as and G. Ros and Jaime Rosado and Markus Roth and B. Rouill{\'e}-d’Orfeuil and Esteban Roulet and A. Clay R.W. Rovero and Francesco Salamida and Humberto Ibarguen Salazar and Gaetano Salina and Federico Andr{\'e}s S{\'a}nchez and Marcos Santander and Catarina Espirito Santo and Edivaldo Moura Santos and F. Sarazin and Subir Sarkar and Ricardo Sato and Viviana Scherini and Harald Schieler and A. Schmidt and Fabian Schmidt and Thomas Schmidt and Olaf Scholten and Petr Schov{\'a}nek and Frederic Schroeder and Stefan Schulte and Fabian Sch{\"u}ssler and Sergio J. Sciutto and M. Scuderi and A. Segreto and Dmitri V. Semikoz and Mariangela Settimo and Ronald Cintra Shellard and Iv{\'a}n Sidelnik and Beatriz B. Siffert and Guenter Sigl and N. Smetniansky-De Grande and Andrzej Śmiałkowski and Radom{\'i}r {\vS}m{\'i}da and A. G. K. Smith and B. E. Smith and Gregory R. Snow and P. Sokolsky and Paul Sommers and J. Sorokin and Harold M Spinka and Ruben Squartini and E. Strazzeri and A. Stutz and Federico Suarez and Tiina Suomij{\"a}rvi and Alberto Daniel Supanitsky and Michael S. Sutherland and John Swain and Zbigniew Szadkowski and J. Takahashi and Alejandro Tamashiro and Alessio Tamburro and Tatiana Tarutina and Oana Gradinaru Tascau and Rodica Tcaciuc and Nguyen T. Thao and D. Thomas and Rolando Ticona and Javier Tiffenberg and C. Timmermans and Wieslaw Tkaczyk and Carlos Jos{\'e} Todero Peixoto and Bernardo Tom{\'e} and Aurelio S. Tonachini and I. Torres and Petr Tr{\'a}vn{\'i}{\vc}ek and Arun Kumar Tripathi and G. Tristram and D. Tscherniakhovski and V. Tuci and Mat{\'i}as Tueros and V. Tunnicliffe and Ralf Ulrich and Michael Unger and Martin Urban and Jose F. Vald{\'e}s Galicia and In{\'e}s Vali{\~n}o and Laura Valore and Ad M. van den Berg and V{\'e}ronique Van Elewyck and Ricardo A. Vazquez and Darko Veberi{\vc} and Alejandro L. Veiga and Alfonso Velarde and Tonia M. Venters and Valerio Verzi and Mariela Videla and L. Villase{\~n}or and Serguei Vorobiov and Lou Voyvodic and Hernan Wahlberg and P. Wahrlich and Oscar Wainberg and Pablo Walker and David S. Warner and Alan Andrew Watson and Stefan Westerhoff and Grzegorz Wieczorek and Lawrence Richard Wiencke and Barbara Wilczynska and Henryk Wilczynski and Chris Wileman and M. G. Winnick and H. Wu and Brian Wundheiler and T. Yamamoto and Patrick William Younk and Enrique Zas and Danilo Zavrtanik and Marko Zavrtanik and Ingyin Zaw and A. Zepeda and Michael S. Ziolkowski},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={101 6},
The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are… 
Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4×1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory
A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4x10(18) eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60 degrees detected with the Pierre
Large scale distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above $10^{18}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory
A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10(18) eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed
Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 10 17 eV
Cosmic Rays above 10 17 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet. At the same time hadronic interaction models have to be applied to the
High-energy cosmic rays and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect.
  • A. Watson
  • Physics
    Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society
  • 2014
This article discusses the current position with regard to experimental data on the energy spectrum of the highest cosmic-ray energies that have been accumulated in a search that has lasted nearly 50 years and suggests a suppression of the spectrum exists near the energy predicted.


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